Ocean Policy Institute

Ansan, South Korea

Ocean Policy Institute

Ansan, South Korea
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Yang H.C.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kim J.W.,Intelligence and Investigation Bureau
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

The dispute between China and Japan regarding Diàoyútái is believed to be quite similar to the controversy surrounding Dokdo in terms of historical and post-war processes except for the point that the phenomena of occupation is different with regard to Dokdo. China's claim to Diàoyútái is based on historical title and continuous use while the basis of Japan's claim is summarized as preoccupancy of ownerless land. Even though Japan acknowledges that China discovered Diàoyútái, Japan claims that the act to establish sovereignty over the island from the standpoint of International Law was not taken by China. However, at that time, effective occupation was not an essential prerequisite for the acquisition of a territory. That is to say, from a legal perspective, the legal right for an area could be established based on the discovery of the land, and so it is thought that Japan is applying the current criteria of International Law in a manner that is inappropriate. When we review the post-war process, the San Francisco Peace Treaty does not directly mention Diàoyútái. But based on the said treaty, we can note that Japan gave up all rights for the southern area that is north of the boundary line that equates to latitude 29o and that includes the Ryuku Islands and Diàoyútái. Of course, the provisions for the territory in the San Francisco Peace Treaty and its disposal are not the final factor for the judgment regarding dominium of Diàoyútái. However, it seems clear that Japan's attitude and interpretation regarding the issues of Diàoyútái, the Kuril Islands and Dokdo is problematic. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.


A nation has a sovereign right to develop and use its natural resources according to its policies with regard to development and the relevant environment. A nation also has an obligation not to harm other countries or damage environments of neighboring countries as consequences of such actions of developments or use of natural resources. However, international precedents induce a nation to take additional actions not to cause more damages from the specific acts causing environmental damages beyond national borders, when such acts have economic and social importance. That is to say that there is a tendency to resolve such issues in a way to promote the balance between the mutual interests by allowing such actions to continue. A solution to China’s Three Gorges Dam dilemma based on a soft law approach is more credible than relying on a good faith approach of national responsibilities and international legal proceedings since the construction and operation of the dam falls within the category of exercising national sovereign rights. If a large scale construction project such as the Three Gorges Dam or operation of a nuclear power plant causes or may cause environmental damage beyond the border of a nation engaged in such an undertaking, countries affected by this undertaking should jointly monitor the environmental effects in a spirit of cooperation rather than trying to stop the construction and should seek cooperative solutions of mutual understanding to establish measures to prevent further damages. If China’s Three Gorges Dam construction and operation cause or contain the possibility of causing serious damages to marine environment, China cannot set aside its national responsibility to meet international obligations if China is aware of or knows about the damage that has occurred or may occur but fail to prevent, minimize, reverse or eliminate additional chances of such damages, or fails to put in place measures in order to prevent the recurrence of such damages. However, Korea must be able to prove a causal relationship between the relevant actions and resulting damages if it is to raise objections to the construction or request certain damage-prevention actions against crucial adverse effects on the marine environment out of respect for China’s right to develop resources and acts of use thereof. Therefore, it is essential to cumulate continuous monitoring and evaluations information pertaining to marine environmental changes and impacts or responses of affected waters as well as acquisition of scientific baseline data with observed changes in such baseline. As China has adopted a somewhat nonchalant attitude toward taking adequate actions to protect against marine pollution risks or adverse effects caused by the construction and operation of China’s Three Gorges Dam, there is a need to persuade China to adopt a more active stance and become involved in the monitoring and co-investigation of the Yellow Sea in order to protect the marine environment. Moreover, there is a need to build a regular environmental monitoring system that includes the evaluation of environmental effects beyond borders. The Espoo Convention can serve as a mechanism to ease potential conflicts of national interest in the Northeast Asian waters where political and historical sensitivities are acute. Especially, the recent diplomatic policy advanced by Korea and China can be implemented as an important example of gentle cooperation as the policy tool of choice is based on regional cooperation or cooperation between different regions. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.


Kwon S.-J.,Ocean Policy Institute | Jeon S.-Y.,Ocean Policy Institute
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

The development of deep seabed manganese nodules has been carried out with the aim of commercial development in 2023. It is important to forecast the price of the four metals (copper, nickel, cobalt, and manganese) extracted from manganese nodules because price change is a criterion for investment decision. The main purpose of the study is to forecast the price of four metals using the ARIMA model and VAR model, and calculate the MAPE to compare a goodness-of-fit between the two models. The estimated results of the two models reveal statistical significance and are in keeping with economic theory.The results of MAPE for goodness-of-fit show that the VAR model is between 0.1 and 0.2, and the ARIMA model is between 0.4 and 0.6. That is, the VA R model is better than the ARIMA model in forecasting changes in the price of metals. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.


Jin S.-J.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Jin S.-J.,Ocean Policy Institute | Lim S.-Y.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Park S.-H.,Ocean Policy Institute | Yoo S.-H.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

The Korean government is considering the implementation of a project to develop a deep-sea human-operated vehicle (HOV) to improve the level of deep-sea research. Information on the scientific benefits from the project is urgently needed in order to come to a decision about whether to implement the project. This paper measures the conservation value of developing nine attributes associated with HOV by using the choice experiment (CE). A survey of about 356 experts was undertaken and 132 experts completely responded to the survey. To deal with the CE data from the survey, we employed a multinomial logit model. All the coefficient estimates are statistically significant and consistent with prior expectations. Therefore, we can judge that the respondents’ works required in the CE survey were within their cognitive abilities and they reported responsible and significant values. Each marginal willingness to pay for each attribute associated with the HOV is statistically significant and provides good information on the scientific values with regard to developing the HOV. The results can be utilized in evaluating and planning several alternatives related to developing the HOV. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.


Jang D.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kang G.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, through case studies, the usefulness of utilizing local R&D centers under science and technology ODA programs. For the past few decades, advanced countries have supported ODA projects of developing countries, but there have been negative opinions regarding the results. Through a case study of the black pearl cultivation project between the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia, this study explains the usefulness of actively utilizing Korean R&D centers established and operational in recipient countries. Although black pearl cultivation is not an ODA project, the case study offers valuable insights as it is operated in a similar form and thus highly applicable to future projects. Based on the case study, four implications were derived to ensure the successful operations of science and technology ODA projects in the future. First, there is a need to improve relevance by making use of the technological capacities of local R&D institutes to develop projects that reflect the needs of recipient and donor countries. Second, trust must be established with local communities over the long term in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of project operations. Third, the proportion of science and technology ODA projects must be expanded to acquire sustainability, and more support should be granted to ODA projects involving marine resources, which are an advantage for countries of Micronesia. Lastly, the locals should be offered employment opportunities and regular training programs to allow for the actual transfer of knowledge instead of mere techniques. The implications derived in this study will prove useful in pursuing science and technology ODA projects, especially with Micronesia.


Lee D.-W.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Abu Affan M.D.,King Abdulaziz University | Lee H.-Y.,Seowon University | Ma C.W.,Korea University | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

One of the most important challenges facing the Spirulina mass cultivation industry is to find a way to reduce the high production costs involved in production. Although the most commercial medium (Zarrouk's medium) for Spirulina cultivation is too expensive to use, it contains higher amount of NaHCO3 (16.80 g L-1), trace metals and vitamin solutions. The purpose of this study was to increase the efficiency of Spirulina platensis biomass production by developing a low-cost culture medium at an isolated tropical island such as Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study set out to formulate a lowcost medium for the culture of S. platensis, by substituting nutrients of Zarrouk's medium using fertilizer- grade urea and soil extract with a different concentration of carbon source under natural weather condition. In order to select a low-cost culture medium of S. platensis, 10 culture media were prepared with different concentrations of nitrogen (urea and NaNO3) and NaHCO3. The highest maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and mass production were 0.50 day-1 and 1.05 g L-1 in modified medium (NaHCO3 7.50 g L-1, urea 2.00 g L-1 without NaNO3) among all the synthesized media. Protein (56.14%) and carbohydrate (16.21%) concentrations of the lyophilized standard samples were estimated with highest concentration of glutamic acid (14.93%). This study revealed that the use of a low concentration of urea and NaHCO3 with soil extract was an affordable medium for natural mass cultivation in the FSM.


Ra K.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Lee C.M.,Ocean Policy Institute | Noh J.-H.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

Heavy metals in the mangrove sediments of Chuuk and Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia were analyzed to examine the pollution levels of heavy metals using enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in surface mangrove sediments were 642, 125, 46.9, 149, 15.6, 0.14 and 8.55 μg, respectively. Kosrae mangrove sediments showed the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni while Chuuk contains more of other metals such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. Compared to those from other mangrove regions of the world, Cr, Ni and As levels in mangrove sediments from Micronesia were at higher levels whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were at lower to median levels. In core sediment of Chuuk, metal concentrations in the upper part were higher than those in the lower part. Based on the EF and PLI values, As is evaluated as the heaviest contaminant in the surface sediment from Micronesia whilst other metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) are present at slightly lesser levels.


Park B.-K.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kwon M.S.,Ocean Policy Institute
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

We collected references on South Pacific Studies from several resources: mainly internet resources and periodicals. Internet resources include associations, organizations and societies; cultural resources; environmental issues; government data; information resources; journals and news letters; libraries, archives, publishers; news sources; other sources; regional issues; selected full text documents and digital resources; and statistics. Periodicals include news and popular interest magazines; regional magazines and general interest publications; and scholarly and professional journals.


Kim T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi Y.-U.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi J.-K.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to suggest an optimal survey method for coastal habitat monitoring around Weno Island in Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study was carried out to compare and analyze differences between in situ survey (PHOTS) and high spatial satellite imagery (Worldview-2) with regard to the coastal habitat distribution patterns of Weno Island. The in situ field data showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 42.4%, seagrass 26.1%, algae 14.9%, rubble 8.9%, hard coral 3.5%, soft coral 2.6%, dead coral 1.5%, others 0.1%. The satellite imagery showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 26.5%, seagrass 23.3%, sand + seagrass 12.3%, coral 18.1%, rubble 19.0%, rock 0.8% (Accuracy 65.2%). According to the visual interpretation of the habitat map by in situ survey, seagrass, sand, coral and rubble distribution were misaligned compared with the satellite imagery. While, the satellite imagery appear to be a plausible results to identify habitat types, it could not classify habitat types under one pixel in images, which in turn overestimated coral and rubble coverage, underestimated algae and sand. The differences appear to arise primarily because of habitat classification scheme, sampling scale and remote sensing reflectance. The implication of these results is that satellite imagery analysis needs to incorporate in situ survey data to accurately identify habitat. We suggest that satellite imagery must correspond with in situ survey in habitat classification and sampling scale. Subsequently habitat sub-segmentation based on the in situ survey data should be applied to satellite imagery.


Kim J.-E.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park S.-W.,Ocean Policy Institute
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2015

International Seabed Authority (ISA) is currently developing rules with regard to exploitation of manganese nodules which will be contained in its first regulations governing the exploitation of deep seabed mineral resources. A stakeholder survey was conducted in the early 2014 by ISA with the aim of facilitating participation of interested entities in the development process of the rules. The stakeholders who had replied to the survey included existing contractors, sponsoring States, environmentalists, academics, and nongovernmental organizations. Opinions given by them largely reflect their own interests. This paper aims to clarify the scope of the obligations regarding the environmental protection which may be imposed on contractors under the new regulations for the exploitation of manganese nodules. To do so, it first analyses the express provisions on environmental protection applicable to deep seabed mining included in the Law of the Sea Convention, its agreement on implementation of Part XI, and the regulations on exploration for manganese nodules. Secondly, it categorizes these obligations based on the categories of international obligations suggested by Combacau and Alland. Based on the categorizations this paper concludes that, in addition to the existing duties to protect deep seabed environment within the Law of the Sea Convention system, the following new obligations could be added: conservation of exploitation sites for a limited time after the contract is ceased; taking all necessary measures for rehabilitation of destroyed ecosystems that occurredas a result of mining activities; monitoring exploitation sites for a limited period time after the contract is ceased; observing rules and standards on safety of ships and environmental protection adopted under IMO instruments; regulation on the discharge of mine tailings from the facilities used for exploitation of deep sea minerals. Lastly, this paper attempts to provide ways of reflecting national interests in terms of potential obligations which may be included in the new regulations. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.

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