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Ansan, South Korea

Lee D.-W.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Abu Affan M.D.,King Abdulaziz University | Lee H.-Y.,Seowon University | Ma C.W.,Korea University | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

One of the most important challenges facing the Spirulina mass cultivation industry is to find a way to reduce the high production costs involved in production. Although the most commercial medium (Zarrouk's medium) for Spirulina cultivation is too expensive to use, it contains higher amount of NaHCO3 (16.80 g L-1), trace metals and vitamin solutions. The purpose of this study was to increase the efficiency of Spirulina platensis biomass production by developing a low-cost culture medium at an isolated tropical island such as Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study set out to formulate a lowcost medium for the culture of S. platensis, by substituting nutrients of Zarrouk's medium using fertilizer- grade urea and soil extract with a different concentration of carbon source under natural weather condition. In order to select a low-cost culture medium of S. platensis, 10 culture media were prepared with different concentrations of nitrogen (urea and NaNO3) and NaHCO3. The highest maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and mass production were 0.50 day-1 and 1.05 g L-1 in modified medium (NaHCO3 7.50 g L-1, urea 2.00 g L-1 without NaNO3) among all the synthesized media. Protein (56.14%) and carbohydrate (16.21%) concentrations of the lyophilized standard samples were estimated with highest concentration of glutamic acid (14.93%). This study revealed that the use of a low concentration of urea and NaHCO3 with soil extract was an affordable medium for natural mass cultivation in the FSM.

Kim T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi Y.-U.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi J.-K.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to suggest an optimal survey method for coastal habitat monitoring around Weno Island in Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study was carried out to compare and analyze differences between in situ survey (PHOTS) and high spatial satellite imagery (Worldview-2) with regard to the coastal habitat distribution patterns of Weno Island. The in situ field data showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 42.4%, seagrass 26.1%, algae 14.9%, rubble 8.9%, hard coral 3.5%, soft coral 2.6%, dead coral 1.5%, others 0.1%. The satellite imagery showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 26.5%, seagrass 23.3%, sand + seagrass 12.3%, coral 18.1%, rubble 19.0%, rock 0.8% (Accuracy 65.2%). According to the visual interpretation of the habitat map by in situ survey, seagrass, sand, coral and rubble distribution were misaligned compared with the satellite imagery. While, the satellite imagery appear to be a plausible results to identify habitat types, it could not classify habitat types under one pixel in images, which in turn overestimated coral and rubble coverage, underestimated algae and sand. The differences appear to arise primarily because of habitat classification scheme, sampling scale and remote sensing reflectance. The implication of these results is that satellite imagery analysis needs to incorporate in situ survey data to accurately identify habitat. We suggest that satellite imagery must correspond with in situ survey in habitat classification and sampling scale. Subsequently habitat sub-segmentation based on the in situ survey data should be applied to satellite imagery.

Yang H.C.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kim J.W.,Intelligence and Investigation Bureau
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

The dispute between China and Japan regarding Diàoyútái is believed to be quite similar to the controversy surrounding Dokdo in terms of historical and post-war processes except for the point that the phenomena of occupation is different with regard to Dokdo. China's claim to Diàoyútái is based on historical title and continuous use while the basis of Japan's claim is summarized as preoccupancy of ownerless land. Even though Japan acknowledges that China discovered Diàoyútái, Japan claims that the act to establish sovereignty over the island from the standpoint of International Law was not taken by China. However, at that time, effective occupation was not an essential prerequisite for the acquisition of a territory. That is to say, from a legal perspective, the legal right for an area could be established based on the discovery of the land, and so it is thought that Japan is applying the current criteria of International Law in a manner that is inappropriate. When we review the post-war process, the San Francisco Peace Treaty does not directly mention Diàoyútái. But based on the said treaty, we can note that Japan gave up all rights for the southern area that is north of the boundary line that equates to latitude 29o and that includes the Ryuku Islands and Diàoyútái. Of course, the provisions for the territory in the San Francisco Peace Treaty and its disposal are not the final factor for the judgment regarding dominium of Diàoyútái. However, it seems clear that Japan's attitude and interpretation regarding the issues of Diàoyútái, the Kuril Islands and Dokdo is problematic. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.

Ra K.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Lee C.M.,Ocean Policy Institute | Noh J.-H.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

Heavy metals in the mangrove sediments of Chuuk and Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia were analyzed to examine the pollution levels of heavy metals using enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in surface mangrove sediments were 642, 125, 46.9, 149, 15.6, 0.14 and 8.55 μg, respectively. Kosrae mangrove sediments showed the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni while Chuuk contains more of other metals such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. Compared to those from other mangrove regions of the world, Cr, Ni and As levels in mangrove sediments from Micronesia were at higher levels whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were at lower to median levels. In core sediment of Chuuk, metal concentrations in the upper part were higher than those in the lower part. Based on the EF and PLI values, As is evaluated as the heaviest contaminant in the surface sediment from Micronesia whilst other metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) are present at slightly lesser levels.

Jang D.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kang G.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, through case studies, the usefulness of utilizing local R&D centers under science and technology ODA programs. For the past few decades, advanced countries have supported ODA projects of developing countries, but there have been negative opinions regarding the results. Through a case study of the black pearl cultivation project between the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia, this study explains the usefulness of actively utilizing Korean R&D centers established and operational in recipient countries. Although black pearl cultivation is not an ODA project, the case study offers valuable insights as it is operated in a similar form and thus highly applicable to future projects. Based on the case study, four implications were derived to ensure the successful operations of science and technology ODA projects in the future. First, there is a need to improve relevance by making use of the technological capacities of local R&D institutes to develop projects that reflect the needs of recipient and donor countries. Second, trust must be established with local communities over the long term in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of project operations. Third, the proportion of science and technology ODA projects must be expanded to acquire sustainability, and more support should be granted to ODA projects involving marine resources, which are an advantage for countries of Micronesia. Lastly, the locals should be offered employment opportunities and regular training programs to allow for the actual transfer of knowledge instead of mere techniques. The implications derived in this study will prove useful in pursuing science and technology ODA projects, especially with Micronesia.

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