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Calado H.,University of The Azores | Bentz J.,University of The Azores | Ng K.,University of The Azores | Zivian A.,Ocean Conservancy | And 4 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are playing important roles in environmental conservation and management. Some are actively involved in the development and implementation of marine spatial planning (MSP), especially in Europe where this has been embodied within a European Directive. MSP is being used by many countries to sustainably manage coastal and marine areas, and reduce conflicts. However, recommendations regarding specific NGO roles within the MSP process are lacking. Consequently, to fill this gap and discuss a way forward, a session at the 5th Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands (GOF5) brought together MSP experts and NGO representatives. This paper reports the conclusions of these discussions and presents a summary guideline document for efficient and effective NGO MSP engagement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gattuso J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gattuso J.-P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gattuso J.-P.,Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations | Magnan A.,Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations | And 21 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems - and the goods and services they provide - for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario - consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C - is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. Source


Leenhardt P.,CNRS Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory | Teneva L.,Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | Kininmonth S.,University of Stockholm | Darling E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2015

Here, we synthesize conceptual frameworks, applied modeling approaches, and as case studies to highlight complex social-ecological system (SES) dynamics that inform environmental policy, conservation and management. Although a set of "good practices" about what constitutes a good SES study are emerging, there is still a disconnection between generating SES scientific studies and providing decision-relevant information to policy makers. Classical single variable/hypothesis studies rooted in one or two disciplines are still most common, leading to incremental growth in knowledge about the natural or social system, but rarely both. The recognition of human dimensions is a key aspect of successful planning and implementation in natural resource management, ecosystem-based management, fisheries management, and marine conservation. The lack of social data relating to human-nature interactions in this particular context is now seen as an omission, which can often erode the efficacy of any resource management or conservation action. There have been repeated calls for a transdisciplinary approach to complex SESs that incorporates resilience, complexity science characterized by intricate feedback interactions, emergent processes, non-linear dynamics and uncertainty. To achieve this vision, we need to embrace diverse research methodologies that incorporate ecology, sociology, anthropology, political science, economics and other disciplines that are anchored in empirical data. We conclude that to make SES research most useful in adding practical value to conservation planning, marine resource management planning processes and implementation, and the integration of resilience thinking into adaptation strategies, more research is needed on (1) understanding social-ecological landscapes and seascapes and patterns that would ensure planning process legitimacy, (2) costs of transformation (financial, social, environmental) to a stable resilient social-ecological system, (3) overcoming place-based data collection challenges as well as modeling challenges. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Christie P.,University of Washington | Pietri D.M.,Blue Earth | Stevenson T.C.,Ocean Conservancy | Pollnac R.,University of Rhode Island | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2016

The Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) is an ambitious marine conservation and governance program engaging six countries in Southeast Asia and Melanesia that has attracted significant international support, including an investment of over $40 million from the United States through the five-year U.S. Coral Triangle Initiative Support Program. In this paper, we examine outcomes of the USCTI documented through the Learning Project (LP), a collaborative, interdisciplinary project capturing lessons learned from USCTI and CTI-CFF. The co-design process and collaborative spirit of the LP allowed it to collect a large body of information from a diverse range of informants in a relatively short time frame and provide important documentation of the achievements and challenges of USCTI. For instance, social surveys of resource users and policy makers in the Coral Triangle region and the United States document that the CTI-CFF has resulted in impressive management outcomes, including: improved MPA enforcement, increases in national and regional management capacity, leadership creation, and integrated conservation-fishery-climate change planning. Significant challenges remain to ensure that overall planning processes effectively link regional-level, national-level, subnational-level (district/provincial) and community-level efforts and that international donors and policy-makers, managers, and resources users in the region remain committed to this conservation experiment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Cooley S.R.,Ocean Conservancy | Cooley S.R.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Rheuban J.E.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Hart D.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean acidification on sea scallops is also needed. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. Source

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