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Lee H.J.,Korea Polar Research Institute | Lee H.J.,Korea Maritime and Ocean University | Park J.-H.,Korea Maritime and Ocean University | Park J.-H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

This study investigates spatial and temporal variations in the generation and propagation of internal tides around the Korea Strait using a three-dimensional high resolution model (Regional Ocean Modeling System; ROMS). The model results were verified through comparison with in-situ current measurements from an array of 12 acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) deployed in the Korea Strait. Fluxes and distributions of internal tidal energy were calculated using simulation results gathered in February and August. Our analyses reveal that energetic semidiurnal internal tides are generated in a region around the Korea Strait shelf break (35.5°N, 130°~130.5°E), where the strong cross-slope semidiurnal barotropic tidal currents interact with a sudden topographical change. The semidiurnal internal tidal energy generated in summer displays values about twice as large as values in winter. Propagation of semidiurnal internal tides also reveals seasonal variability. In February, most of the semidiurnal internal tides propagate only into the open basin of the East Sea due to weak stratification in the Korea Strait, which inhibits their southwestward propagation. In August, they propagate southwestward to 35.2°N along the western channel of the Korea Strait because of strong stratification. In addition, semidiurnal internal tides generated in a region west of Tsushima Island are found to propagate to the coast of Busan. This can be explained by the intensified stratification due to the strong intrusion of bottom cold water in the western channel of the Korea Strait during summer.

Hong G.H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Yang D.B.,Special Marine Areas Management Center | Lee H.-M.,Special Marine Areas Management Center | Yang S.R.,Gwangju University | And 7 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e. g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kang S.K.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Jung K.T.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Yum K.-D.,Ocean energy | Lee K.-S.,Ocean energy | And 2 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

Uldolmok waterway, located between an island off the southwestern tip of Korean peninsula and mainland, is famous for its strong tidal current that has a maximum current of about 6. 0m/s. A series of field observations along with numerical modeling have been carried out in order to understand the tidal dynamics in terms of the force balance along the whole waterway and the energy balance in the narrowest part of the waterway. First, analysis of the ADCP current and the tide level variation data reveals that the tidal dynamics along the total waterway (channel) is balanced dominantly between the pressure gradient and linear bottom frictional forces, with the phase lag of sea level difference for the semi-diurnal constituents leading the current phase about by 10°. Secondly, the result of the numerical modeling reveals that the tidal energy flux vector flows toward the narrowest section, indicating that there should be related nonlinear processes. Through the numerical model experiment with multi-components, the convergence of (M2 + S2) tidal energy flux of 6. 68 × 107 Joule/s in the narrow area of the Uldolmok waterway is explained mainly by the energy consumption of 73% through the nonlinear generation of shallow water components and by the bottom frictional energy dissipation of 27%. This reveals that the remarkably strong nonlinear process dominates in the narrowest section of the Uldolmok waterway, compared with other areas, such as Yellow and East China Seas where the total M2 energy flux through the open boundary is balanced in terms of the bottom dissipation (Kang et al. 2003; Choi 1980). © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lee J.H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Kim C.-H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea was reviewed based mainly on published literatures. Though the quantitative results are not the same, it is generally shown that sea surface temperature is increasing especially in recent years with the rate of increase about 0.03oC/year. Other meaningful results presented in the literatures is that the difference of water properties between layers upper and lower than the thermocline in summer shows an increasing trend both in temperature and salinity, suggesting that the stratification has been intensified. As a mechanism by which to evaluate the wintertime warming trend in the region, the weakening of wind strength, which is related to the variation of sea level pressure and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific and northern Asian continent, is suggested in the most of related studies.

Kim Y.-O.,South Sea Research Institute | Shin K.,South Sea Research Institute | Jang P.-G.,South Sea Research Institute | Choi H.-W.,Oceanogaphic Data and Information Center | And 4 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

This study examined seasonal and annual occurrences of warm oceanic tintinnid species in southern Korea coastal waters. The indicative species of tintinnids was monitored using three approaches: monitoring from cruises traveling from the warm pool in the western North Pacific to the Korea Strait; biweekly or monthly monitoring in the Korea Strait; and daily monitoring in the nearshore water. Annual pulses of warm oceanic indicator species were regularly observed in the Korea Strait. In September 2008 recorded a maximum species number of warm water indicators, a representative species for warm oceanic waters, Climacocylis scalaroides was simultaneously detected in the nearshore water as well as the Korea Strait. The result indicates that the greater warm water extension into Korean coastal areas was in September 2008. Sharp declines in species diversity were observed in the transitional area between neritic and Kuroshio zone in East China Sea (ECS). Epiplocyloides reticulata, reported previously as a Kuroshio indicator, was considered an ECS indicator species, as it was undetected in the western North Pacific central zone but was found abundantly in the ECS. Tintinnid species can be used as biological indicators to detect the inflow of warm oceanic waters into Korean coastal waters. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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