Jeju Special Self Governing Province, South Korea
Jeju Special Self Governing Province, South Korea

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Ahn M.,Jeju National University | Won S.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Kang B.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Gong P.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2017

Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) myxospores infect the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, two popular commercially formulated anti-coccidial drugs (amprolium hydrochloride and toltrazuril) were serially diluted and incubated with purified mature Kudoa septempunctata myxospores. The viability of K. septempunctata spores was determined after a 2-day incubation followed by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Amprolium hydrochloride significantly decreased spore viability (18% of control) at a concentration of 920 μg/mL, whereas toltrazuril showed almost no effect (83% of control). Viability of the control (untreated spores) was 90%. In vivo studies are required to confirm the efficacy of amprolium hydrochloride in fish infected with K. septempunctata myxospores on their growth and immune system performance. © M. Ahn et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.


Han S.Y.,Green Cross | Han S.Y.,Seoul National University | Kang B.K.,Green Cross | Kang B.J.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2011

The prevalence of two serotypes of Streptococcus parauberis isolated from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, was evaluated in a total of 29 isolates between 2003 and 2010 in Korea. Streptococcus parauberis isolates were divided into two serologically distinct types (serotype 1 and serotype 2), except for one strain (S1091), using an agglutination assay with rabbit antiserum, and serotype 1 was identified as the dominant type (24 of 29 isolates) in this study. To identify the characteristics of the two serotypes of S. parauberis, we conducted a biochemical test using the API 20 Strep kit, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay, sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) and a pathogenicity test. In TEM, both serotypes possessed polysaccharide capsule layers around the cell surface when bacterial cells were treated with a homologous serotype of rabbit antiserum. However, we were unable to discriminate serotype-specific biochemical characteristics and genetic characteristics of 16S-23S rRNA ISR between the two serotypes. In the pathogenicity test, the serotype 1 strains induced significantly higher mortality than the serotype 2 strains in olive flounder when experimentally inoculated via the intraperitoneal route. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Han S.Y.,Green Cross | Han S.Y.,Seoul National University | Kang B.K.,Green Cross | Kang B.J.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Fish Pathology | Year: 2011

We evaluated the protective efficacy of a combined vaccine containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and S. parauberis using olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The fish were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of the combined vaccine. The fish were then challenged by intraperitoneal injection of the three bacterial strains. Mortality was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with the control groups 3 wk post vaccination. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in antibody titer up to 16 wk after vaccination. Our results suggest that the combined vaccine successfully induced humoral and protective immunity against the three pathogens in olive flounder. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.


Ahn M.,Jeju National University | Woo H.,Jeju National University | Kang B.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Jang Y.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Shin T.,Jeju National University
Parasite | Year: 2015

Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) infects the muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus, Paralichthyidae) in the form of spores. To investigate the effect of K. septempunctata spores in mammals, adult BALB/c mice were fed with spores of K. septempunctata genotype ST3 (1.35 × 105 to 1.35 × 108 spores/mouse). After ingestion of spores, the mice remained clinically normal during the 24-h observation period. No spores were found in any tissue examined by histopathological screening. Quantitative PCR screening of the K. septempunctata 18S rDNA gene revealed that the K. septempunctata spores were detected only in the stool samples from the spore-fed groups. Collectively, these findings suggest that K. septempunctata spores are excreted in faeces and do not affect the gastrointestinal tract of adult mice. © 2015 M. Ahn et al.


Bathige S.D.N.K.,Jeju National University | Umasuthan N.,Jeju National University | Whang I.,Jeju National University | Lim B.-S.,Jeju National University | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val131-Tyr348) and transmembrane segment (Ala669-Ile691) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in protecting disk abalone through the ability of AbMPEG1 to initiate an innate immune response upon pathogen invasion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Jang Y.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Ahn M.,Jeju National University | Bang H.,Jeju National University | Kang B.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute
Parasite | Year: 2016

This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 106 or 5 × 107 spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 106 spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. © Y. Jang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.


PubMed | Jeju National University, Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute and Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2015

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an essential member of the antioxidant systems of living organisms and may be involved in immune defense against pathogenic invasion. In the current study, two selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (AbSeGPxs) that shared 54.3% identity were identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The open reading frames (ORFs) of AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b coded for 222 and 220 amino acids, respectively, with a characteristic selenocysteine residue encoded by an opal stop codon (TGA). The conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was predicted in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of both isoforms, and they were found to form two stem-loop structures. Amino acid comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the AbSeGPxs were closely related to those in other mollusk species and were evolutionarily distinct from those of other taxonomic groups. The SYBR Green qPCR was employed in investigating the transcripts of AbSeGPxs. The expression of AbSeGPxs mRNA was examined in different embryonic developmental stages and differential expression patterns for AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b were noted. Meanwhile, the highest expression of AbSeGPxs was detected in the hepatopancreas of healthy adult animals. Next, transcriptional levels were profiled in hemocytes of adults to determine the immune responses of AbSeGPxs to microbial infections. The results revealed the significant up-regulation of AbSeGPx-a in a time-dependent manner after bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infections. Consequently, these findings indicate that AbSeGPx-a and AbSeGPx-b might be involved in the embryonic development of disk abalone and the regulation of immune defense system of adult animals.


Kang J.,Jeju National University | Park C.,Jeju National University | Jang Y.,Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute | Ahn M.,Jeju National University | Shin T.,Jeju National University
Parasite | Year: 2016

The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. © 2016 J. Kang et al., published by EDP Sciences.


PubMed | Jeju National University and Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Parasite (Paris, France) | Year: 2016

The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3.


PubMed | Jeju National University and Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Parasite (Paris, France) | Year: 2015

Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) infects the muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus, Paralichthyidae) in the form of spores. To investigate the effect of K. septempunctata spores in mammals, adult BALB/c mice were fed with spores of K. septempunctata genotype ST3 (1.35 10(5) to 1.35 10(8) spores/mouse). After ingestion of spores, the mice remained clinically normal during the 24-h observation period. No spores were found in any tissue examined by histopathological screening. Quantitative PCR screening of the K. septempunctata 18S rDNA gene revealed that the K. septempunctata spores were detected only in the stool samples from the spore-fed groups. Collectively, these findings suggest that K. septempunctata spores are excreted in faeces and do not affect the gastrointestinal tract of adult mice.

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