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Oh S.S.,Wonju Christian Hospital | Kim K.S.,Yonsei University | Kim K.S.,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Journal of Korean Medical Science

Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. © 2010 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. Source

Lim C.-H.,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Toxicological Research

In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-La2O3, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was stronger than that of micro-La2O3 in the A549 cells. We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure. Source

The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 and lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, and exercise) modulate the levels of urinary styrene metabolites such as mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) after occupational exposure to styrene. We recruited 79 male workers who had received chronic exposure in styrene fiberglass-reinforced plastic manufacturing factories. We found that serum albumin was significantly correlated with blood styrene/ambient styrene (BS/AS), urinary styrene (US)/AS, and US/BS ratios as well as urinary metabolites, that total protein correlated with US/MA and US/PGA ratios, and that low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol significantly correlated with US/BS, US/MA, and US/PGA ratios. Multiple logistic regression analyses using styrene-metabolizing enzyme genotypes and lifestyle habits as dependent variables and blood and urine styrene concentrations and urine styrene metabolite levels as independent variables revealed that CYP2E1*5 was associated with the MA/US ratio and GSTM1 with US/BS, that a smoking habit was associated with US/AS and MA/US ratios and MA and PGA levels, and that regular exercise was correlated with PGA/US. In conclusion, the results suggested that genetic polymorphisms of styrene-metabolizing enzymes, lifestyle behaviors, and albumin and LDL-cholesterol serving as homeostasis factors together are involved in styrene metabolism. Source

Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of trust on work stress. Trust can be classified into three dimensions; social trust, institutional trust, and trust in others. The relationship between work stress and trust is regarded as having three components. First, trust has an influence on work stressors as an antecedent variable; secondly, trust modifies the effect of the various stressors, and finally, trust is one of the stressors. Methods: Data for this study was collected by interviews and self-administered structured questionnaires from 376 Korean and 77 Japanese workers in small businesses. Subjects were selected by two stage stratified random sampling from the working population of manufacturing industries. Results: Three different positions of trust are significantly related with the stress causation web. Social trust, institutional trust and trust in others significantly influence different work stressors in both Korean and Japanese workers. Three different kinds of trust influence work stressors among Korean workers, but institutional trust has no impact on work stressors among Japanese workers. As a moderating variable for perceived stress, distrust in an employer is statistically significant in both groups. However, stress symptom prevalence among Korean workers is modified by caution, trust in career development, and distrust in co-workers, but that of Japanese workers is modified only by distrust in employer. Job satisfaction of Korean workers is affected by general trust, utility of relation, institutional trust and trust in employer, but among Japanese workers, caution, reputation and trust in employer have influence on job satisfaction. Conclusion: The effect of trust on work stress, perceived stress, stress reaction and job satisfaction are different among Korean workers and Japanese workers. Three dimensions of trust have three different positions as antecedent, moderating and mediating factors in stress causation. Copyright © 2010 by Safety and Health at Work (SH@W). Source

Crawled News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

As recently as the middle of last year, it seemed the South Korean consumer electronics giant was ready to come to terms with critics of its workplace safety. While still not conceding a link between the chemicals used in its semiconductor factories and cancer, it apologized and promised financial help for sick workers. The statement was a welcome if incomplete victory for families and activists who have battled for years to hold the company to account. The shift came as Samsung Electronics prepared for leadership of the company to pass to Lee Jae-yong, the son of its ailing chairman. The plight of former workers was also attracting media scrutiny in Europe and in the U.S., both important markets for Samsung's smartphones and other products. Another sign of progress came in December 2014 when Samsung, workers and their families agreed that a three-member panel of experts would mediate. But an ugly rift has now opened between Samsung and the main advocacy group for sick workers, Banolim. At issue is Samsung's rejection of the mediator's recommendations that an independent organization be established to oversee compensation and monitor safety and preventive measures at its factories. "If there are no preventive measures, workers will continue to get rare diseases. And every time there is a sick worker, Samsung will just compensate," said Hwang Sang-gi, a founding member of Banolim. He is among the people who say they won't apply for Samsung's financial aid, seeing it as a distraction from the more important issue of prevention. Hwang lost his 22-year-old daughter Yu-mi to leukemia in 2007 after she worked dipping silicon wafers in chemicals at Samsung's Giheung factory, south of Seoul. Her death galvanized concern about conditions at Samsung factories and South Korea's semiconductor industry in general. Hwang's struggle to find out why his daughter died was the basis of a popular movie released last year. More than 200 people who worked at Samsung's semiconductor and LCD factories and suffered chronic illnesses have contacted or sought help from Banolim. Of them, 72 have died. Many had cancers such as leukemia and were aged in their 20s or 30s. The oldest cases date to the 1980s but most are from the 1990s and 2000s. South Korea has long praised the economic benefits of the semiconductor industry, which helped the country become among the richest in Asia. But it only recently began discussing the human and economic costs of workers who became ill after or while laboring on chip manufacturing lines, which use hundreds of chemicals that have not always been disclosed or monitored. Only in 2012 did Samsung begin monitoring the level of benzene in the air at its factories. The carcinogen could be released as a by-product from other substances. A one-year evaluation of six South Korean semiconductor companies including Samsung, released in 2008, reported a statistically significant increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among female workers. The study by the government-run Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute said there was no statistically meaningful increase in leukemia. Samsung said the results didn't stem from its workplaces but no factory specific data has been released. The institute began a 10-year study in 2008. Samsung rejected the mediator's proposals because establishing a public entity takes time, which only "prolongs the pain," said Baik Sooha, a vice president at Samsung. "One of the important ways to see the resolution of this problem is to see how many people have agreed to settle," he said. Samsung says it will cover medical fees and some income for workers with any of 26 diseases. So far, 120 people have applied for compensation. Only a few are known to be from the 200-plus cases tracked by Banolim. Among those applying, 59 received an undisclosed amount of money and agreed not to pursue legal action against Samsung. Another nine will soon settle as well. The remaining 52 either did not meet the Samsung's criteria for settlement or are still undergoing the settlement process. Samsung would not specify how many were rejected. Meanwhile, South Korea's second-largest semiconductor company SK Hynix has opened its oldest chip factories, chemical use and employee health data to external investigators. Last month it accepted their recommendations to provide financial help to all sickened employees, including those suffering from miscarriage and infertility, two categories that Samsung doesn't consider for financial assistance. U.N. human rights rapporteur Baskut Tuncak said in October he has "grave concern" about Samsung's compensation plan, which has become cloaked in secrecy. It appeared that victims' need for health care and other expenses was being used to "circumvent the prospects of increased scrutiny into whether businesses are taking steps to prevent reoccurrence" of health risks, he said. Banolim has faced an onslaught of criticism in South Korea's media that began not long after Samsung indicated it was unhappy with the mediator's proposals. Some news articles portrayed the advocacy group as a threat to the country's semiconductor business at a time when Chinese firms are catching up to South Korean companies. Others said the campaigners wanted the oversight body established so they could get jobs. Samsung said it has never encouraged any South Korean media to publish stories attacking the advocacy group. The conglomerate is the country's biggest advertiser. "When I look at what media say, a lot of times I get so angry," said Son Sung-bae, 26, whose father died in 2012. He was diagnosed with leukemia working at a contractor that maintained equipment at Samsung's semiconductor lines. Samsung's financial assistance is available to contractors and their families but Son won't apply for it. "There are a lot of families who think the way Samsung compensates is entirely wrong," he said. But their options are limited. Over the years, the government agency that oversees insurance for occupational diseases compensated only three semiconductor cases. The agency requires a clear link to the work environment be demonstrated, which was nearly impossible for Samsung workers, partly because the company did not disclose all the chemicals it used. Another four cases succeeded in overturning the government agency's rejection at courts, including Hwang. Until mid-2014, workers had to fight not only the government agency that was a defendant in lawsuits but also Samsung's lawyers who aided the government agency. Campaigners believe an external organization with powers to halt work at Samsung factories, where there are no labor unions to speak up for workers, is the best way to minimize health risks in the semiconductor industry. But the latest developments, they say, are shutting the door to accountability. "It looks like things are back to square one," said Son.

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