Occupational Lung Diseases Institute

Sangnok gu, South Korea

Occupational Lung Diseases Institute

Sangnok gu, South Korea

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Song K.S.,Korea Conformity Laboratory | Sung J.H.,Korea Conformity Laboratory | Ji J.H.,Samung Electronics Ltd | Lee J.H.,Hoseo University | And 9 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2013

In a previous study, the lung function, as indicated by the tidal volume, minute volume, and peak inspiration flow, decreased during 90 days of exposure to silver nanoparticles and was accompanied by inflammatory lesions in the lung morphology. Therefore, this study investigated the recovery from such lung function changes in rats following the cessation of 12 weeks of nanoparticle exposure. Male and female rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (14-15 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.66 × 106 particles/cm 3 (49 μg/m3, low dose), 1.41 × 106 particles/cm3 (117 μg/m3, middle dose), and 3.24 × 106 particles/cm3 (381 μg/m3, high dose) for 6 h/day in an inhalation chamber for 12 weeks. The rats were then allowed to recover. The lung function was measured every week during the exposure period and after the cessation of exposure, plus animals were sacrificed after the 12-week exposure period, and 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. An exposure-related lung function decrease was measured in the male rats after the 12-week exposure period and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. In contrast, the female rats did not show a consistent lung function decrease either during the exposure period or following the exposure cessation. The histopathology showed a gradual recovery from the lung inflammation in the female rats, whereas the male rats in the high-dose group exhibited persistent inflammation throughout the 12-week recovery period. Therefore, the present results suggest a potential persistence of lung function changes and inflammation induced by silver nanoparticle exposure above the no observed adverse effect level. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Lee J.H.,Hoseo University | Ahn K.,Hanyang University | Kim S.M.,Hanyang University | Jeon K.S.,Hanyang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2012

With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and realtime monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m 3. However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m 3. Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m 3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/ cm3 with a size range of 15-710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 when the reactor was stopped. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Song J.,Hanyang University | Kim I.,Yonsei University | Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2014

The range of diseases covered by workers' compensation is constantly expanding. However, new regulations are required for the recognition of occupational diseases (ODs) because OD types evolve with changes in industrial structures and working conditions. OD criteria are usually based on medical relevance, but they vary depending on the social security system and laws of each country. In addition, the proposed range and extent of work-relatedness vary depending on the socio-economic conditions of each country. The Labor Standards Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) of Korea employ lists based on their requirements without listing causes and diseases separately. Despite a considerable reshuffle in 2003, the basic framework has been maintained for 50 yr, and many cases do not fit into the international disease classification system. Since July 1, 2013, Korea has expanded the range of occupational accidents to include occupational cancers and has implemented revised LSA and IACIA enforcement decrees. There have been improvements to OD recognition standards with the inclusion of additional or modified criteria, a revised and improved classification scheme for risk factors and ODs, and so on. © 2014 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Park S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Kim H.-R.,Catholic University of Korea | Song J.,Hanyang University
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2014

The respiratory system is one of the most important body systems particularly from the viewpoint of occupational medicine because it is the major route of occupational exposure. In 2013, there were significant changes in the specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases, which were established by the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA). In this article, the authors deal with the former criteria, implications of the revision, and changes in the specific criteria in Korea by focusing on the 2013 amendment to the IACIA. Before the 2013 amendment to the IACIA, occupational respiratory disease was not a category because the previous criteria were based on specific hazardous agents and their health effects. Workers as well as clinicians were not familiar with the agent-based criteria. To improve these criteria, a system-based structure was added. Through these changes, in the current criteria, 33 types of agents and 11 types of respiratory diseases are listed under diseases of the respiratory system. In the current criteria, there are no concrete guidelines for evaluating work-relatedness, such as estimating the exposure level, latent period, and detailed examination methods. The results of further studies can support the formulation of detailed criteria. © 2014 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Lee W.-J.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Academic Radiology | Year: 2013

Rationale and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of soft copy images based on flat-panel detector of digital radiography (DR-FPD soft copy images) compared to analog radiographs (ARs) in pneumoconiosis classification and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: DR-FPD soft copy images and ARs from 349 subjects were independently read by four-experienced readers according to the International Labor Organization 2000 guidelines. DR-FPD soft copy images were used to obtain consensus reading (CR) by all readers as the gold standard. Reliability and validity were evaluated by a κ and receiver operating characteristic analysis, respectively. Results: In small opacity, overall interreader agreement of DR-FPD soft copy images was significantly higher than that of ARs, but it was not significantly different in large opacity and costophrenic angle obliteration. In small opacity, agreement of DR-FPD soft copy images with CR was significantly higher than that of ARs with CR. It was also higher than that of ARs with CR in pleural plaque and thickening. Receiver operating characteristic areas were not different significantly between DR-FPD soft copy images and ARs. Conclusions: DR-FPD soft copy images showed accurate and reliable results in pneumoconiosis classification and diagnosis compared to ARs. © 2013 AUR.

Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Park S.Y.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Lee J.O.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2010

This study identifies the number of pneumoconiosis patients after eliminating deceased patients between 2003 and 2008 as of January 1st and estimates it for the next five years. From 2003 to 2008, the pneumoconiosis patients were 16,929, 17,224, 17,366, 17,566, 17,542, and 17,546, respectively. The number of pneumoconiosis patients will have increased by 1,014 from 2008 to 18,560 in 2013 after applying the average change rates taken from 2003 to 2007. It takes 15-20 yr to develop coal workers' pneumoconiosis (the main cause in Korea) and patients will continue to be diagnosed with pneumoconiosis for some years to come since it has only been 20 yr since the decline of the coal mining industry in Korea. In addition, pneumoconiosis patients are increasing in industries in which the risk of pneumoconiosis was relatively low shows the necessity to improve dust-exposed workplace environments. © 2010 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Lee W.-J.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Shin J.H.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Park S.Y.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of pulmonary function impairment (PFI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and the effect of pneumoconiosis on CAC or PFI. Methods: Seventy-six subjects exposed to inorganic dusts underwent coronary artery calcium scoring by MDCT, spirometry, laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire. CAC was quantified using a commercial software (Rapidia ver. 2.8), and all the subjects were divided into two categories according to total calcium scores (TCSs), either the non-calcified (<1) or the calcified (≥1) group. Obstructive pulmonary function impairment (OPFI) was defined as forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC, %)<70, and as FEV1/FVC (%)≥70 and FVC<80 for restrictive pulmonary function impairment (RPFI) by spirometry. All subjects were classified as either the case (profusion ≥ 1/0) or the control (profusion ≤0/1) group by pneumoconiosis findings on simple digital radiograph. Results: Of the 76 subjects, 35 subjects (46.1%) had a CAC. Age and hypertension were different significantly between the non-calcified and the calcified group (p<0.05). Subjects with pneumoconiosis were more frequent in the calcified group than those in the non-calcified group (p=0.099). FEV 1/FVC (%) was significantly correlated with TCSs (r=-0.316, p=0.005). Subjects with OPFI tended to increase significantly with increasing of TCS (4.82, p=0.028), but not significantly in RPFI (2.18, p=0.140). Subjects with OPFI were significantly increased in the case group compared to those in the control group. Conclusion: CAC is significantly correlated with OPFI, and CAC and OPFI may be affected by pneumoconiosis findings. Copyright©2013. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. All rights reserved.

Lee J.S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Shin J.H.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2015

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is characterized as a chronic inflammation of the lung associated with activation of macrophages and endothelial cells in the lung. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as biomarkers for progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in 106 subjects (27 non-CWP and 79 CWP patients). The levels of serum IL-8 (P < 0.001) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.001) of subjects with PMF were higher than those of non-CWP subjects. The IL-8 levels of PMF subjects were also higher than those of simple CWP subjects (P = 0.003). Among the subjects without PMF, IL-8 levels in the subjects with International Labour Organization (ILO) category II or III were higher than those in the subjects with ILO category 0 (P = 0.006) and with category I (P = 0.026). These results suggest that high serum levels of IL-8 and ICAM-1, which are important as neutrophil attractants and adhesion molecules, are associated with PMF. © 2015 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Lee W.-J.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute
Health Physics | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to compare digital radiography (DR) and analog radiography (AR) for the screening of pneumoconiosis with respect to radiation dose, image quality, and pneumoconiosis classification. DR was performed on 50 subjects who were enrolled for an examination of pneumoconiosis (Digital Diagnost™, Philips, Netherlands), and AR (MXO-15B, Toshiba, Japan) was performed the same day after the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Entrance surface doses (ESDs) of DR and AR were measured using a glass dosimeter attached to a Rando human phantom (Alderson Co., U.S.) under exposure conditions commonly used in clinical practice in Korea. Visibilities on all images were evaluated using a 5-point scale by four chest radiologists using a modified form of the European Chest Guidelines (EUR 16260). All the images were classified using the ILO's guidelines by referencing standard analog radiographs. ESDs of DR were significantly lower than those of AR (0.15 mGy vs. 0.21 mGy, p < 0.05). All anatomic structures were significantly more visible by DR images (p < 0.0001), especially the left main bronchus, ribs, and thoracic spine. Body mass index did not correlate with anatomic structure visibility by DR (r = -0.029, p = 0.842) or AR images (r = -0.076, p = 0.602). Overall intra- and inter-reader agreements for DR images were significantly higher than for AR images. DR offers improved image quality with a significant reduction of up to 23.6% in radiation dose and more accurate pneumoconiosis classification than AR. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.

Kim B.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Lee J.S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Choi B.-S.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | Park S.-Y.,Occupational Lung Diseases Institute | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2013

Background: According to epidemiological research, exposure to rubber fumes can cause various types of cancer and can lead to an increase in death rate because of cardiovascular diseases.Objectives: In this study, we have assessed the characteristics of ultrafine particles emitted into the air during the manufacturing of rubber products using waste tires.Methods: To assess the aerosol distribution of rubber fumes in the workplace from a product during curing, we have performed particle number concentration mapping using a handheld condensation particle counter.The particle number concentration of each process, count median diameter (CMD), and nanoparticle ratio (<100nm) were determined using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), and the surface area concentration was determined using a surface area monitor. The shape and composition of the sampled rubber fumes were analyzed using an ELPI-transmission electron microscopy grid method. Further, the rubber fume mass concentration was determined according to the Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 47/2.Results: The results of particle mapping show that the rubber fumes were distributed throughout the air of the workplace. The concentration was the highest during the final process of the work. The particle number concentration and the surface area concentration were 545 000cm-3 and 640 m2 cm-3, respectively, approximately 10-and 4-fold higher than those in the outdoor background.During the final process, the CMD and the nanoparticle ratio were 26nm and 94%, respectively. Most of the rubber fume particles had a compact shape because of the coagulation between particles. The main components of these fumes were silicon and sulfur, and heavy metals such as zinc were detected in certain particles. The filter concentration of the rubber fumes was 0.22mg m-3, lower than the UK workplace exposure limit of 0.6mg m-3.Conclusions: Therefore, the rubber manufacturing process is a potentially dangerous process that produces a high concentration of specific nanoparticles. © 2013 The Author.

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