Kim J.,Occupatinal Safety and Health Research Institute
Safety and Health at Work | Year: 2012
Objectives: To challenge the problem of slipperiness, various slipmeters have been developed to assess slip hazard. The performance of in-situ slipmeter is, however, still unclear under the various floor conditions. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of three kinds of slipmeters under real conditions, and to find their dynamic and kinematic characteristics, which were compared with gait test results. Methods: Four common restaurant floor materials were tested under five contaminants. Slipmeters and human gaits were measured by high speed camera and force plate to find and compare their dynamic and kinematic characteristics. Results: The contact pressures and built-up ratio were below those of subjects. The sliding velocity of British Pendulum Tester was above those of subjects, while those of BOT-3000 and English XL were below those of subjects. From the three meters, the English XL showed the highest overall correlation coefficient (r = 0.964) between slip index and Ra, while the rest did not show statistical significance with surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz). The English XL only showed statistical significance (p < 0.01) between slip index and contaminants. The static coefficient of friction obtained with the BOT-3000 showed good consistency and repeatability (CV < 0.1) as compared to the results for the BPT (CV > 0.2) and English XL (CV < 0.2). Conclusion: It is unclear whether surface roughness can be a reliable and objective indicator of the friction coefficient under real floor conditions, and the viscosity of contaminants can affect the friction coefficient of the same floors. Therefore, to evaluate slipperiness, the performance of the slipmeters needed to improve. Copyright © 2012 by Safety and Health at Work (SH@W).
Kim J.-K.,Occupatinal Safety and Health Research Institute |
Kang M.-G.,Occupatinal Safety and Health Research Institute |
Cho H.-W.,Occupatinal Safety and Health Research Institute |
Han J.-H.,Occupatinal Safety and Health Research Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Safety and Health at Work | Year: 2011
Objectives: We sought to establish a novel method to generate nano-sized carbon black particles (nano-CBPs) with an average size smaller than 100 nm for examining the inhalation exposure risks of experimental rats. We also tested the effect of nano-CBPs on the pulmonary and circulatory systems. Methods: We used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without the addition of any additives to generate nano-CBPs with a particle size (electrical mobility diameter) of less than 100nm to examine the effects of inhalation exposure. Nano-CBPs were applied to a nose-only inhalation chamber system for studying the inhalation toxicity in rats. The effect on the lungs and circulatory system was determined according to the degree of inflammation as quantified by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The functional alteration of the hemostatic and vasomotor activities was measured by plasma coagulation, platelet activity, contraction and relaxation of blood vessels. Results: Nano-CBPs were generated in the range of 83.3-87.9 nm. Rats were exposed for 4 hour/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 4.2 × 106, 6.2 × 105, and 1.3 × 105 particles/cm3. Exposure of nano-CBPs by inhalation resulted in minimal pulmonary inflammation and did not appear to damage the lung tissue. In addition, there was no significant effect on blood functions, such as plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation, or on vasomotor function. Conclusion: We successfully generated nano-CBPs in the range of 83.3-87.9 nm at a maximum concentration of 4.2 × 106 particles/cm3 in a nose-only inhalation chamber system. This reliable method can be useful to investigate the biological and toxicological effects of inhalation exposure to nano-CBPs on experimental rats. Copyright © 2011 by Safety and Health at Work (SH@W).