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Ryde N.,Lund Observatory | Ryde N.,Uppsala University | Gustafsson B.,Uppsala University | Edvardsson B.,Uppsala University | And 10 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context: It is debated whether the MilkyWay bulge has characteristics more similar to those of a classical bulge than those of a pseudobulge. Detailed abundance studies of bulge stars are important when investigating the origin, history, and classification of the bulge. These studies provide constraints on the star-formation history, initial mass function, and differences between stellar populations. Not many similar studies have been completed because of the large distance and high variable visual extinction along the line-of-sight towards the bulge. Therefore, near-IR investigations can provide superior results. Aims: To investigate the origin of the bulge and study its chemical abundances determined from near-IR spectra for bulge giants that have already been investigated with optical spectra. The optical spectra also provide the stellar parameters that are very important to the present study. In particular, the important CNO elements are determined more accurately in the near-IR. Oxygen and other α elements are important for investigating the star-formation history. The C and N abundances are important for determining the evolutionary stage of the giants and the origin of C in the bulge. Methods: High-resolution, near-infrared spectra in the H band were recorded using the CRIRES spectrometer mounted on the Very Large Telescope. The CNO abundances are determined from the numerous molecular lines in the wavelength range observed. Abundances of the α elements Si, S, and Ti are also determined from the near-IR spectra. Results: The abundance ratios [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [S/Fe] are enhanced to metallicities of at least [Fe/H] = -0.3, after which they decline. This suggests that the Milky Way bulge experienced a rapid and early burst of star formation similar to that of a classical bulge. However, a similarity between the bulge trend and the trend of the local thick disk seems to be present. This similarity suggests that the bulge could have had a pseudobulge origin. The C and N abundances suggest that our giants are first-ascent red-giants or clump stars, and that the measured oxygen abundances are those with which the stars were born. Our [C/Fe] trend does not show any increase with [Fe/H], which is expected ifW-R stars contributed substantially to the C abundances. No "cosmic scatter" can be traced around our observed abundance trends: the measured scatter is expected, given the observational uncertainties. © 2010 ESO. Source

Durret F.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Adami C.,LAM | Bertin E.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Hao J.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. The discovery of new galaxy clusters is important for two reasons. First, clusters are interesting per se, since their detailed analysis allows us to understand how galaxies form and evolve in various environments and second, they play an important part in cosmology because their number as a function of redshift gives constraints on cosmological parameters. Aims. We have searched for galaxy clusters in the Stripe 82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and analysed various properties of the cluster galaxies. Methods. Based on a recent photometric redshift (hereafter photo-z) galaxy catalogue, we built a cluster catalogue by applying the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI). Extensive tests were made to fine-tune the AMACFI parameters and make the cluster detection as reliable as possible. The same method was applied to the Millennium simulation to estimate our detection efficiency and the approximate masses of the detected clusters. Considering all the cluster galaxies (i.e. within a 1 Mpc radius of the cluster to which they belong and with a photo-z diering by less than ±0.05 from that of the cluster), we stacked clusters in various redshift bins to derive colour-magnitude diagrams and galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs). For each galaxy brighter than Mr < - 19.0, we computed the disk and spheroid components by applying SExtractor, and by stacking clusters we determined how the disk-to-spheroid flux ratio varies with cluster redshift and mass. Results. We detected 3663 clusters in the redshift range 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.70, with estimated mean masses between ∼1013 and a few 1014 M⊙. We cross-matched our catalogue of candidate clusters with various catalogues extracted from optical and/or X-ray data. The percentages of redetected clusters are at most 40% because in all cases we detect relatively massive clusters, while other authors detect less massive structures. By stacking the cluster galaxies in various redshift bins, we find a clear red sequence in the (ǵ - ŕ) versus ŕ colour-magnitude diagrams, and the GLFs are typical of clusters, though with a possible contamination from field galaxies. The morphological analysis of the cluster galaxies shows that the fraction of late-type to early-type galaxies shows an increase with redshift (particularly in 9σ clusters) and a decrease with detection level, i.e. cluster mass. Conclusions. From the properties of the cluster galaxies, the majority of the candidate clusters detected here seem to be real clusters with typical cluster properties. © ESO 2015. Source

Guennou L.,LAM | Adami C.,LAM | Da Rocha C.,Southern Cross University of Brazil | Durret F.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | And 28 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. The study of intracluster light (ICL) can help us to understand the mechanisms taking place in galaxy clusters, and to place constraints on the cluster formation history and physical properties. However, owing to the intrinsic faintness of ICL emission, most searches and detailed studies of ICL have been limited to redshifts z < 0.4. Aims. To help us extend our knowledge of ICL properties to higher redshifts and study the evolution of ICL with redshift, we search for ICL in a subsample of ten clusters detected by the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS), at redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.8, that are also part of our DAFT/FADA Survey. Methods. We analyze the ICL by applying the OV WAV package, a wavelet-based technique, to deep HST ACS images in the F814W filter and to V-band VLT/FORS2 images of three clusters. Detection levels are assessed as a function of the diffuse light source surface brightness using simulations. Results. In the F814W filter images, we detect diffuse light sources in all the clusters, with typical sizes of a few tens of kpc (assuming that they are at the cluster redshifts). The ICL detected by stacking the ten F814W images shows an 8σ detection in the source center extending over a ∼50 × 50 kpc 2 area, with a total absolute magnitude of-21.6 in the F814W filter, equivalent to about two L * galaxies per cluster. We find a weak correlation between the total F814W absolute magnitude of the ICL and the cluster velocity dispersion and mass. There is no apparent correlation between the cluster mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and the amount of ICL, and no evidence of any preferential orientation in the ICL source distribution. We find no strong variation in the amount of ICL between z = 0 and z = 0.8. In addition, we find wavelet-detected compact objects (WDCOs) in the three clusters for which data in two bands are available; these objects are probably very faint compact galaxies that in some cases are members of the respective clusters and comparable to the faint dwarf galaxies of the Local Group. Conclusions. We show that the ICL is prevalent in clusters at least up to redshift z = 0.8. In the future, we propose to detect the ICL at even higher redshifts, to determine wether there is a particular stage of cluster evolution where it was stripped from galaxies and spread into the intracluster medium. © 2012 ESO. Source

Adami C.,LAM | Durret F.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Benoist C.,OCA | Coupon J.,LAM | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context: Counting clusters is one of the methods to constrain cosmological parameters, but has been limited up to now both by the redshift range and by the relatively small sizes of the homogeneously surveyed areas. Aims. In order to enlarge publicly available optical cluster catalogs, in particular at high redshift, we have performed a systematic search for clusters of galaxies in the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Methods. We considered the deep 2, 3 and 4 CFHTLS Deep fields (each 1 × 1 deg2), as well as the wide 1, 3 and 4 CFHTLS Wide fields. We used the Le Phare photometric redshifts for the galaxies detected in these fields with magnitude limits of i′= 25 and 23 for the Deep and Wide fields respectively. We then constructed galaxy density maps in photometric redshift bins of 0.1 based on an adaptive kernel technique and detected structures with SExtractor at various detection levels. In order to assess the validity of our cluster detection rates, we applied a similar procedure to galaxies in Millennium simulations. We measured the correlation function of our cluster candidates. We analyzed large scale properties and substructures, including filaments, by applying a minimal spanning tree algorithm both to our data and to the Millennium simulations. Results: We detected 1200 candidate clusters with various masses (minimal masses between 1.0 × 1013 and 5.5 × 1013 and mean masses between 1.3 × 1014 and 12.6 × 1014 M⊙) in the CFHTLS Deep and Wide fields, thus notably increasing the number of known high redshift cluster candidates. We found a correlation function for these objects comparable to that obtained for high redshift cluster surveys.We also show that the CFHTLS deep survey is able to trace the large scale structure of the universe up to z ≥ 1. Our detections are fully consistent with those made in various CFHTLS analyses with other methods. We now need accurate mass determinations of these structures to constrain cosmological parameters. Conclusions: We have shown that a search for galaxy clusters based on density maps built from galaxy catalogs in photometric redshift bins is successful and gives results comparable to or better than those obtained with other methods. By applying this technique to the CFHTLS survey we have increased the number of known optical high redshift cluster candidates by a large factor, an important step towards using cluster counts to measure cosmological parameters. © 2010 ESO. Source

Durret F.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Adami C.,LAM | Cappi A.,National institute for astrophysics | Maurogordato S.,OCA | And 21 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. Cosmological parameters can be constrained by counting clusters of galaxies as a function of mass and redshift and by considering regions of the sky sampled as deeply and as homogeneously as possible. Aims.Several methods for detecting clusters in large imaging surveys have been developed, among which the one used here, which is based on detecting structures. This method was first applied to the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Deep 1 field by Mazure et al. (2007, A&A, 467, 49), then to all the Deep and Wide CFHTLS fields available in the T0004 data release by Adami et al. (2010, A&A, 509, A81). The validity of the cluster detection rate was estimated by applying the same procedure to galaxies from the Millennium simulation. Here we use the same method to analyse the full CFHTLS Wide survey, based on the T0006 data release. Methods.Our method is based on the photometric redshifts computed with Le Phare for all the galaxies detected in the Wide fields, limited to magnitudes z′ ≤ 22.5. We constructed galaxy density maps in photometric redshift bins of 0.1 based on an adaptive kernel technique, detected structures with SExtractor at various detection levels, and built cluster catalogues by applying a minimal spanning tree algorithm. Results. In a total area of 154 deg2, we have detected 4061 candidate clusters at 3σ or above (6802 at 2 sigma; and above), in the redshift range 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.15, with estimated mean masses between 1.3 × 1014 and 12.6 × 1014 M⊙. This catalogue of candidate clusters will be available at the CDS.We compare our detections with those made in various CFHTLS analyses with other methods. By stacking a subsample of clusters, we show that this subsample has typical cluster characteristics (colour?magnitude relation, galaxy luminosity function). We also confirm that the cluster-cluster correlation function is comparable to the one obtained for other cluster surveys and analyse large-scale filamentary galaxy distributions. Conclusions.We have increased the number of known optical high-redshift cluster candidates by a large factor, an important step towards obtaining reliable cluster counts to measure cosmological parameters. The clusters that we detect behave as expected if they are located at the intersection of filaments by which they are fed. © 2011 ESO. Source

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