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Tiruchirappalli, India

Shanmughapriya S.,Bharathidasan University | Lency Francis A.,Bharathidasan University | Kavitha S.,Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit | Natarajaseenivasan K.,Bharathidasan University

The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) gives a solid surface for attachment and an ideal niche for biofilm to form and flourish. Pelvic actinomycosis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of IUD-associated pelvic actinomycosis requires the immediate removal of the IUD. Therefore, this article presents in vitro evidence to support the use of novel antibiotics in the treatment of actinomycete biofilms. Twenty one clinical actinomycetes isolates from endocervical swabs of IUD wearers were assessed for their biofilm forming ability. An in vitro biofilm model with three isolates, Streptomyces strain A4, Nocardia strain C15 and Nocardia strain C17 was subjected to treatment with nystatin. Inhibition of biofilm formation by nystatin was found to be concentration dependent, with MBIC50 values in the range 0.08-0.16 mg ml-1. Furthermore, at a concentration of 0.16 mg ml-1, nystatin inhibited the twitching motility of the isolates, providing evidence for a possible mechanism of biofilm inhibition. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Shanmughapriya S.,A-Life Medical | Sornakumari H.,A-Life Medical | Lency A.,A-Life Medical | Kavitha S.,Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit | Natarajaseenivasan K.,A-Life Medical
Medical Mycology

The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) provides a solid surface for attachment of microorganisms and an ideal niche for the biofilm to form and flourish. Vaginal candidiasis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis that develops in connection with IUD use requires their immediate removal. Here, we present in vitro evidence to support the use of combination therapy to inhibit Candida biofilm. Twenty-three clinical Candida isolates (10 C. krusei and 13 C. tropicalis) recovered from endocervical swabs obtained from IUD and non-IUD users were assessed for biofilm-formation ability. The rate of isolation of Candida did not differ significantly among IUD and non-IUD users (P = 0.183), but the biofilm-formation ability of isolates differed significantly (P = 0.02). An in vitro biofilm model with the obtained isolates was subjected to treatment with amphotericin B, tyrosol, and a combination of amphotericin B and tyrosol. Inhibition of biofilm by amphotericin B or tyrosol was found to be concentration dependent, with 50% reduction (P < 0.05) at 4mg/l and 80μM, respectively. Hence, a combination effect of tyrosol and amphotericin B was studied. Interestingly, approximately 90% reduction in biofilm was observed with use of 80μM tyrosol combined with 4mg/l amphotericin B (P < 0.001). This represents a first step in establishing an appropriate antibiofilm therapy when yeasts are present. © The Author 2014. Source

Shanmughapriya S.,Bharathidasan University | Shanmughapriya S.,Temple University | Lency A.,Bharathidasan University | Kavitha S.,Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit | Natarajaseenivasan K.,Bharathidasan University
Trends in Medical Research

Pelvic actinomycosis constitutes one of the curiosities of gynecology. In this present investigation the presence of actinomycetes infection among Intrauterine device (IUD) users and its correlation correlated with the development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and ovarian carcinoma was studied. Endocervical swabs were obtained from ovarian carcinoma, IUD users, non-users and processed to isolate actinomycetes on actinomycetes isolation agar. The isolation rate was found to be increased among IUD users who were clinically diagnosed to have PID (52.9%) followed by ovarian carcinoma cases who were prior users of IUD (44.4%). Compared to healthy non-IUD users, IUD users with PID experienced a 158 fold statistically significant increased risk of actinomycetes infection (OR = 158.63, 95% CI = 17.84, 161.11) followed by ovarian carcinoma patients with IUDs (OR = 112.80, 95% CI = 10.59, 120.02). The isolates showed high resistance against penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin and low resistance against tetracycline, linezolid and gentamycin. The use of IUDs facilitates the colonization by actinomycetes which in turn lead to PID and pelvic actinomycosis. Further the pelvic actinomycosis simulates pelvic malignancies. If chronic actinomycetes infection are encountered, the patients should be given long term therapy with aminoglycoside antibiotics and if a pelvic mass is evident aggressive and prolonged antibiotic therapy with surgical intervention is required. © 2016 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Bazzo S.,University of Trieste | Battistella G.,Epidemiologic Unit | Riscica P.,Local Health Authority of Treviso | Moino G.,Local Health Authority of Treviso | And 4 more authors.
Rivista di Psichiatria

Aim. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a range of harmful effects on the developing foetus and newborn, called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The identification of pregnant women who use alcohol enables to provide information, support and treatment for women and the surveillance of their children. The AUDIT-C (the shortened consumption version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) is used for investigating risky drinking with different populations, and has been applied to estimate alcohol use and risky drinking also in antenatal clinics. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a self-report Italian version of the AUDIT-C questionnaire to detect alcohol consumption during pregnancy, regardless of its use as a screening tool. Methods. The questionnaire was filled in by two independent consecutive series of pregnant women at the 38th gestation week visit in the two birth locations of the Local Health Authority of Treviso (Italy), during the years 2010 and 2011 (n=220 and n=239). Reliability analysis was performed using internal consistency, item-total score correlations, and inter-item correlations. The "discriminatory power" of the test was also evaluated. Results. Overall, about one third of women recalled alcohol consumption at least once during the current pregnancy. The questionnaire had an internal consistency of 0.565 for the group of the year 2010, of 0.516 for the year 2011, and of 0.542 for the overall group. The highest itemtotal correlations' coefficient was 0.687 and the highest inter-item correlations' coefficient was 0.675. As for the discriminatory power of the questionnaire, the highest Ferguson's delta coefficient was 0.623. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the Italian self-report version of the AUDIT-C possesses unsatisfactory reliability to estimate alcohol consumption during pregnancy when used as self-report questionnaire in an obstetric setting. © 2015, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore s.r.l. All rights reserved. Source

Malyszko J.S.,Medical University of Bialystok | Rams L.,Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit | Drozdowska-Rams L.,Haematology Unit | Malyszko J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Archives of Medical Science

Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess whether neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C could reflect kidney function in pregnant healthy women. Material and methods: The studies were performed on 130 healthy pregnant women (n = 63, 3 rd trimester; n = 21, 2 nd trimester; n = 46, 1 st trimester) and 30 healthy female volunteers. Serum NGAL, cystatin C, IL-6, and hs-CRP were assayed using commercially available kits. Results: Serum cystatin C rose steadily during the pregnancy, whereas NGAL rose in the 2 nd trimester, then decreased in the 3 rd trimester. In univariate analysis, NGAL correlated with serum cystatin C, number of pregnancies, white blood cell count, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and IL-6, and tended to correlate with eGFR. In multiple regression analysis the only predictor of serum NGAL was cystatin C. Conclusions: Serum NGAL in pregnancy might reflect subclinical inflammation rather than kidney function. It seems that NGAL, similarly to cystatin C, is not useful to monitor renal function in pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 Termedia & Banach. Source

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