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Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe

Dallaire R.,Laval University | Muckle G.,Laval University | Rouget F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kadhel P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Background: The insecticide chlordecone was extensively used in the French West Indies to control banana root borer. Its persistence in soils has led to the widespread pollution of the environment, and human beings are still exposed to this chemical. Chlordecone has been shown to impair neurological and behavioural functions in rodents when exposed gestationally or neonatally.Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to chlordecone on the cognitive, visual, and motor development of 7-month-old infants from Guadeloupe.Methods: Infants were tested at 7 months (n=153). Visual recognition memory and processing speed were assessed with the Fagan Tests of Infant Intelligence (FTII), visual acuity with the Teller Acuity Card, and fine motor development with the Brunet-Lezine. Samples of cord blood and breast milk at 3 months (n=88) were analyzed for chlordecone concentrations. Postnatal exposure was determined through breast feeding and frequency of contaminated food consumption by the infants.Results: Cord chlordecone concentrations in tertiles were associated with reduced novelty preference on the FTII in the highly exposed group (Β=-0.19, p=0.02). Postnatal exposure through contaminated food consumption was marginally related to reduced novelty preference (Β=-0.14, p=0.07), and longer processing speed (Β=0.16, p=0.07). Detectable levels of chlordecone in cord blood were associated with higher risk of obtaining low scores on the fine motor development scale (OR=1.25, p<0.01).Conclusion: These results suggest that pre- and postnatal low chronic exposure to chlordecone is associated with negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. © 2012 . Source

Saunders L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kadhel P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kadhel P.,Gynecology and Obstetric Unit | Costet N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2014

Few studies have explored the consequences of environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides for gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used intensively, and almost exclusively, in the French West Indies until 1993. We investigated the impact of prenatal exposure to chlordecone on the occurrence of GDM, GH and PE by studying 779 pregnant women enrolled in a prospective mother-child cohort (Timoun Study) in Guadeloupe between 2004 and 2007. Chlordecone exposure was determined by assaying maternal plasma and information about pregnancy complications was obtained from midwives, pediatricians and hospital medical records after delivery. The risks of GH (n. = 65), PE (n. = 31) and GDM (n. = 71) were estimated by multiple logistic regression including potential confounders. Levels of chlordecone plasma concentration in the third (OR. = 0.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.5) and fourth quartiles (OR. = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of GH. A log10 increase in chlordecone concentration was significantly associated with lower risk of GH (OR. = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). No significant associations were observed between the chlordecone exposure and the risk of PE or GDM. This study suggests an inverse association between chlordecone exposure during pregnancy and GH. Further studies are required to determine the underlying mechanism, or the potential unknown confounding factors, resulting in this association. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Saunders L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guldner L.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Costet N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kadhel P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background Recent studies suggest that a Mediterranean dietary pattern during pregnancy may influence pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy on fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm delivery (PTD) in a French Caribbean island where the population is largely of African descent and presents dietary patterns similar to MD. Methods Using data from the TIMOUN Mother-Child Cohort Study conducted in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2004 and 2007, we analysed data for 728 pregnant women who delivered liveborn singletons without any major congenital malformations. Degree of adherence to MD during pregnancy was evaluated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire based on nine dietary criteria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse birth outcomes while taking potential confounders into account. Results Overall there was no association between MD adherence during pregnancy and the risk of PTD or FGR. However, pre-pregnancy body mass index was a strong effect modifier, and MD adherence was associated with a decreased risk of PTD specifically in overweight and obese women (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.6, 0.9) (P heterogeneity <0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that Caribbean diet during pregnancy may carry some benefits of MD and may contribute to reduce the risk of PTD in overweight and obese pregnant women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Tornesello M.L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Cassese R.,Italian National Cancer Institute | de Rosa N.,University of Naples Federico II | Buonaguro L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2011

Surveillance of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution in migrant women from middle and low-income countries to developed countries is limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the spectrum of HPV genotypes and prevalence of cervical abnormalities in women emigrated mainly from Eastern Europe and West Africa and living in Southern Italy. The study included 233 migrant and 98 Italian-born women who self-referred to two gynecological outpatient clinics in the Campania region. Cervical specimens were subjected to cytological examination and viral testing by broad spectrum PCR. The prevalence rates of HPV infection were 57.9% and 94.1% among migrant and 19.4% and 88.5% among Italian women with normal and abnormal cytology respectively. HPV infection was detected in 56.1% of Southern and Eastern European, 62.5% of Central and South American, 55.5% of West African, and 73.3% of Southern Asian women with normal cervix. Among the 140 HPV-positive migrants, a total of 28 mucosal HPV genotypes were identified of which 11 types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58), epidemiological classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1), accounted for 73.4% of all infections. As expected, HPV16 was the most common viral type in all groups with frequency rates ranging from 12.5% in African to 30.1% in Eastern and Southern European women. In conclusion, the estimated prevalence of HPV infection among migrant women is very high, probably reflecting either lifestyle or high incidence of HPV in their country of origin. The implementation of vaccination strategies and cervical cancer surveillance are critical for women in this risk group. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS. Source

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