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Ralfs J.-P.,Obstbauversuchsanstalt Jork der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2011

An increasing trend towards mechanisation of agriculture from the beginning of the 20th century has facilitated the deployment of efficient and powerful machines by fruit farmers of the Lower Elbe region. The transition from a muscle-driven one-horsepower traction and work machine to motorised vehicles falls into that period. Since fruit farmers were engaged also in cattle and dairy production in these early days, some aspects of the latter are also covered here. With a few exceptions, the Technical Section has been a one-man unit since 1947. Seed production, planting, soli cultivation, tree treatment, pest control, harvest, storage and packaging have been the important tasks. The most prominent of all challenges is crop protection technology. Additional aspects of work in the Technical Section are the organisation of the regional annual exhibition of machines and equipment for fruit producers, and recommendations in the course of seminars and articles in the regional journal Mitteilungen des OVR. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Gorgens M.,Obstbauversuchsanstalt Jork der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2011

The first post within this Section was instigated by Prof. Lowel. Work started in 1952. Intensive work by Prof. Alfred Löhden resulted in fundamental methodological approaches to the evaluation of permanent crops. In addition, Löhden used key figures for his business comparisons. Beginning in the 1980 s, business comparisons were intensively developed as advisory tools. Work on market economy matters was rather fruitful because market knowledge could be employed for the foundation of a producer organisation. Further current aspects of this Section include the planning and management of projects, dealing with market economy, producing statements and expertises for the fruit sector, addressing structural questions related to building projects, and maintaining various statistics. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Clever M.,Obstbauversuchsanstalt Jork der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2011

This article describes the foundation and development of experimental fruit farms in Ottensen and subsequently on the Esteburg site. Important foci of work of the experimental farm are varietal and rootstock trials of apple, pear, sweet and sour cherry, plum and prune, as well as additional cultivation trials with the afore-mentioned fruits. Machines and equipment are being tested under practical conditions. Since the introduction of Integrated Production in 1989, the experimental farm is being managed according to these guidelines. An area of 4 ha has been managed according to organic farming practice since 2001. The apprenticeship scheme covers 8 trainee gardeners specialising in fruit production as well as two technical assistants. The experimental farm is certified as a cross-company apprenticeship centre for training gardeners specialising in fruit production. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Stehr R.,Obstbauversuchsanstalt Jork der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2011

Using varieties and rootstocks of apple and cherry as examples, the development of wide-ranging experimental work on pome and stone fruits is retraced. In the case of apple varieties, directed breeding programmes have produced new varieties showing successive and step-wise improvements. In the case of apple rootstocks, the excellent performance of M9 is beyond doubt. Competitiveness of sweet cherry production in the "Altes Land" has been maintained by several developments such as new varieties, slower-growing and more fertile rootstocks, and transparent roof-covers in order to avoid fruit-bursting. Changing personal responsibilities, "historical merits" and current personnel capacities are addressed. An outlook at future challenges casts a brief flashlight on perspectives for the next 25 years' experimental work at the Fruit Experiment Station (OVA) Jork. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Palm G.,Obstbauversuchsanstalt Jork der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2011

Faced with a large diversity of pests and diseases of regular or variable importance to fruit production, the Plant Protection Section has to deliver timely disease forecasts and decisions concerning potential control measures. The main strength of the Plant Protection Section has been a functional experimental set-up which lays an important foundation for the regional advisory service. Applied research has been a basis for developments in crop protection in the Lower Elbe region. Thus, crucial prerequisites for the introduction of Integrated Crop Protection have been established and further developed, always looking for solutions to existential problems. Problems in controlling of apple sucker and apple scab led to the establishment of the Fruit Experiment Station (OVA) Jork. Existential threats in subsequent years were posed by a large number of pests and diseases, including water voles and bitter rot in apple production, and fire blight, tree decline and little-cherry in sweet cherry production. Specific legislation covering the special fruit production area"Altes Land" has been a milestone in securing the future of regional fruit production. Along similar lines, comprehensive surveys of the behaviour of crop protection compound residue have been conducted recently, the results being used as arguments against scientifically unfounded demands by food retailers concerning limitations of the number of detectable residues. The Plant Protection Section will continue to play a crucial role in the Fruit Experiment Station. Future challenges have to be met by a highly motivated and well equipped team. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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