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Wezgowiec M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Soida M.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Bomans D.J.,Ruhr University Bochum
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. Group galaxies very often show distinct signs of interaction with both companion galaxies and the intragroup medium. X-ray observations are particularly helpful because they provide information on the temperatures and the densities of the hot gas in galaxies and intergalactic space. This can put important constraints on the nature and timescales of these interactions. Aims. We use the XMM-Newton X-ray observations of NGC 3627 in the Leo Triplet galaxy group to explain peculiar features visible in the polarized radio maps. Methods. We analyzed soft X-ray (0.2-1 keV) emission from NGC 3627 to study the distribution of the hot gas and its temperature in different areas of the galaxy. Any change throughout the disk can reflect distortions visible in the radio polarized emission. We also studied two bright point sources that are probably tightly linked to the evolution of the galaxy. Results. We find an increase in the temperature of the hot gas in the area of the polarized radio ridge in the western arm of the galaxy. In the eastern part of the disk we find two ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We note a large hot gas temperature difference (by a factor of 2) between the two bar ends. Conclusions. The polarized radio ridge in the western arm of NGC 3627 is most likely formed by ram-pressure effects caused by the movement of the galaxy through the intragroup medium. To explain the distortions visible in the eastern part of the disk in polarized radio maps, the asymmetry of the bar, and the distortion of the eastern arm, we propose a recent collision of NGC 3627 with a dwarf companion galaxy. © 2012 ESO. Source

Wezgowiec M.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Wezgowiec M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Urbanik M.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Beck R.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. The Virgo cluster of galaxies provides excellent conditions for studying interactions of galaxies with the cluster environment. Both the high-velocity tidal interactions and effects of ram pressure stripping by the intracluster gas can be investigated in detail. Aims. We extend our systematic search for possible anomalies in the magnetic field structures of Virgo cluster spirals in order to characterize a variety of effects and attribute them to different disturbing agents. Methods. Six angularly large Virgo cluster spiral galaxies (NGC 4192, NGC 4302, NGC 4303, NGC 4321, NGC 4388, and NGC 4535) were targets of a sensitive total power and polarization study using the 100-m radio telescope in Effelsberg at 4.85 GHz and 8.35 GHz (except for NGC 4388 observed only at 4.85 GHz, and NGC 4535 observed only at 8.35 GHz). The presented two-frequency studies allow Faraday rotation analysis. Results. Magnetic field structures distorted to various extent are found in all galaxies. Three galaxies (NGC 4302, NGC 4303, and NGC 4321) show some signs of possible tidal interactions, while NGC 4388 and NGC 4535 have very likely experienced strong ram-pressure and shearing effects, respectively, visible as distortions and asymmetries of polarized intensity distributions. As in our previous study, even strongly perturbed galaxies closely follow the radio-far-infrared correlation. In NGC 4303 and NGC 4321, we observe symmetric spiral patterns of the magnetic field and in NGC 4535 an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. The cluster environment clearly affects the evolution of its member galaxies via various effects. Magnetic fields allow us to trace even weak interactions that are difficult to detect with other observations. Our results show that the degree of distortions of a galaxy is not a simple function of the distance to the cluster center but reflects also the history of its interactions. The angle Θ between the velocity vector v and the rotation vector Ω of a galaxy may be a general parameter that describes the level of distortions of galactic magnetic fields. Information about the motions of galaxies in the sky plane and their three-dimensional distribution, as well as information about the intracluster medium can also be obtained from the Faraday rotation analysis. © ESO, 2012. Source

Damas-Segovia A.,MPI fur Radioastronomie | Beck R.,MPI fur Radioastronomie | Vollmer B.,University of Strasbourg | Wiegert T.,Queens University | And 7 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

We investigate the effects of ram pressure on the ordered magnetic field of a galaxy hosting a radio halo and strong nuclear outflows. New radio images in total and polarized intensity of the edge-on Virgo galaxy NGC 4388 were obtained within the CHANG-ES EVLA project. The unprecedented noise level reached allows us to detect striking new features of the ordered magnetic field. The nuclear outflow extends far into the halo to about 5 kpc from the center and is spatially correlated with the Hα and X-ray emission. For the first time, the southern outflow is detected. Above and below both spiral arms we find extended blobs of polarized emission with an ordered field oriented perpendicular to the disk. The synchrotron lifetime of the cosmic-ray electrons (CREs) in these regions yields a mean outflow velocity of 270 ± 70 km s-1, in agreement with a galactic wind scenario. The observed symmetry of the polarized halo features in NGC 4388 excludes a compression of the halo gas by the ram pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM). The assumption of equilibrium between the halo pressure and the ICM ram pressure yields an estimate of the ICM density that is consistent with both the ICM density derived from X-ray observations and the recent Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements. The detection of a faint radio halo around cluster galaxies could thus be used for an estimate of ICM ram pressure. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Drzazga R.T.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Chyzy K.T.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Heald G.H.,Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy | Heald G.H.,University of Groningen | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

Aims. It is still unknown how magnetic field-generation mechanisms could operate in low-mass dwarf galaxies. Here, we present a detailed study of a nearby pure-disk dwarf galaxy NGC 2976. Unlike previously observed dwarf objects, this galaxy possesses a clearly defined disk. We also discuss whether NGC 2976 could serve as a potential source of the intergalactic magnetic field. Methods. For the purpose of our studies, we performed deep multi-frequency polarimetric observations of NGC 2976 with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. Additionally, we supplement them with re-imaged data from the WSRT-SINGS survey for which a rotation measure (RM) synthesis was performed. A new weighting scheme for the RM synthesis algorithm, consisting of including information about the quality of data in individual frequency channels, was proposed and investigated. Application of this new weighting to the simulated data, as well as to the observed data, results in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio in the Faraday depth space. Results. The magnetic field morphology discovered in NGC 2976 consists of a southern polarized ridge. This structure does not seem to be due to just a pure large-scale dynamo process (possibly cosmic-ray driven) at work in this object, as indicated by the RM data and dynamo number calculations. Instead, the field of NGC 2976 is modified by past gravitational interactions and possibly also by ram pressure inside the M 81 galaxy group environment. The estimates of total (7 μG) and ordered (3 μG) magnetic field strengths, as well as degree of field order (0.46), which is similar to those observed in spirals, suggest that tidally generated magnetized gas flows can further enhance dynamo action in the object. NGC 2976 is apparently a good candidate for the efficient magnetization of its neighbourhood. It is able to provide an ordered (perhaps also regular) magnetic field into the intergalactic space up to a distance of about 5 kpc. Conclusions. Tidal interactions (and possibly also ram pressure) can lead to the formation of unusual magnetic field morphologies (like polarized ridges) in galaxies out of the star-forming disks, which do not follow any observed component of the interstellar medium (ISM), as observed in NGC 2976. These galaxies are able to provide ordered magnetic fields far out of their main disks. © ESO, 2016. Source

Chyzy K.T.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Wezgowiec M.,Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego | Wezgowiec M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Beck R.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | Bomans D.J.,Ruhr University Bochum
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Aims. We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods. We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 GHz. Three galaxies were detected. A higher frequency (4.85 GHz) was used to search for polarized emission in five dwarfs that are the most luminous ones in the infrared domain, of which three were detected. Results. Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are weak, with a mean value of the total field strength of <4.2 ± 1.8 μG, three times lower than in the normal spirals. The strongest field among all LG dwarfs of 10 μG (at 2.64 GHz) is observed in the starburst dwarf IC 10. The production of total magnetic fields in dwarf systems appears to be regulated mainly by the star-formation surface density (with the power-law exponent of 0.30 ± 0.04) or by the gas surface density (with the exponent 0.47 ± 0.09). In addition, we find systematically stronger fields in objects of higher global star-formation rate. The dwarf galaxies follow a similar far-infrared relationship (with a slope of 0.91 ± 0.08) to that determined for high surface brightness spiral galaxies. The magnetic field strength in dwarf galaxies does not correlate with their maximum rotational velocity, indicating that a small-scale rather than a large-scale dynamo process is responsible for producting magnetic fields in dwarfs. If magnetization of the Universe by galactic outflows is coeval with its metal enrichment, we show that more massive objects (such as Lyman break galaxies) can efficiently magnetize the intergalactic medium with a magnetic field strength of about 0.8 nG out to a distance of 160-530 kpc at redshifts 5-3, respectively. Magnetic fields that are several times weaker and shorter magnetization distances are expected for primordial dwarf galaxies. We also predict that most star-forming local dwarfs might have magnetized their surroundings up to a field strength about 0.1 μG within about a 5 kpc distance. Conclusions. Strong magnetic fields (>6 μG) are observed only in dwarfs of extreme characteristics (e.g. NGC 4449, NGC 1569, and the LG dwarf IC 10). They are all starbursts and more evolved objects of statistically much higher metallicity and global star-formation rate than the majority of the LG dwarf population. Typical LG dwarfs are unsuitable objects for the efficient supply of magnetic fields to the intergalactic medium. © 2011 ESO. Source

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