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Nemravova J.,Charles University | Harmanec P.,Charles University | Kubat J.,Czech Republic Astronomical Institute | Koubsky P.,Czech Republic Astronomical Institute | And 7 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Radial-velocity variations of the Há emission measured on the steep wings of the Há line, prewhitened for the long-time changes, vary periodically with a period of 218.d 025 ±0.d022, confirming the suspected binary nature of the bright Be star BU Tau, a member of the Pleiades cluster. The orbit seems to have a high eccentricity over 0.7, but we also briefly discuss the possibility that the true orbit is circular and that the eccentricity is spurious owing to the phase-dependent effects of the circumstellar matter. The projected angular separation of the spectroscopic orbit is large enough to allow the detection of the binary with large optical interferometers, provided the magnitude difference primary. secondary is not too large. Since our data cover the onset of a new shell phase up to development of a metallic shell spectrum, we also briefly discuss the recent long-term changes. We confirm the formation of a new envelope, coexisting with the previous one, at the onset of the new shell phase. We find that the full width at half maximum of the Há profile has been decreasing with time for both envelopes. In this connection, we briefly discuss Hirata's hypothesis of precessing gaseous disk and possible alternative scenarios of the observed long-term changes. © 2010 ESO.

Nemravova J.A.,Charles University | Harmanec P.,Charles University | Broz M.,Charles University | Vokrouhlicky D.,Charles University | And 35 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

Context. Compact hierarchical systems are important because the effects caused by the dynamical interaction among its members occur ona human timescale. These interactions play a role in the formation of close binaries through Kozai cycles with tides. One such system is ξ Tauri: it has three hierarchical orbits: 7.14 d (eclipsing components Aa, Ab), 145 d (components Aa+Ab, B), and 51 yr (components Aa+Ab+B, C). Aims. We aim to obtain physical properties of the system and to study the dynamical interaction between its components. Methods. Our analysis is based on a large series of spectroscopic photometric (including space-borne) observations and long-baseline optical and infrared spectro-interferometric observations. We used two approaches to infer the system properties: a set of observation-specific models, where all components have elliptical trajectories, and an N-body model, which computes the trajectory of each component by integrating Newton's equations of motion. Results. The triple subsystem exhibits clear signs of dynamical interaction. The most pronounced are the advance of the apsidal line and eclipse-timing variations. We determined the geometry of all three orbits using both observation-specific and N-body models. The latter correctly accounted for observed effects of the dynamical interaction, predicted cyclic variations of orbital inclinations, and determined the sense of motion of all orbits. Using perturbation theory, we demonstrate that prominent secular and periodic dynamical effects are explainable with a quadrupole interaction. We constrained the basic properties of all components, especially of members of the inner triple subsystem and detected rapid low-amplitude light variations that we attribute to co-rotating surface structures of component B. We also estimated the radius of component B. Properties of component C remain uncertain because of its low relative luminosity. We provide an independent estimate of the distance to the system. Conclusions. The accuracy and consistency of our results make ξ Tau an excellent test bed for models of formation and evolution of hierarchical systems. © ESO, 2016.

Pablo H.,University of Montréal | Richardson N.D.,University of Montréal | Moffat A.F.J.,University of Montréal | Corcoran M.,NASA | And 47 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We report on both high-precision photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope and ground-based spectroscopy of the triple system δ Ori A, consisting of a binary O9.5II+early-B (Aa1 and Aa2) with P = 5.7 days, and a more distant tertiary (O9 IV years). This data was collected in concert with X-ray spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thanks to continuous coverage for three weeks, the MOST light curve reveals clear eclipses between Aa1 and Aa2 for the first time in non-phased data. From the spectroscopy, we have a well-constrained radial velocity (RV) curve of Aa1. While we are unable to recover RV variations of the secondary star, we are able to constrain several fundamental parameters of this system and determine an approximate mass of the primary using apsidal motion. We also detected second order modulations at 12 separate frequencies with spacings indicative of tidally influenced oscillations. These spacings have never been seen in a massive binary, making this system one of only a handful of such binaries that show evidence for tidally induced pulsations. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Miroshnichenko A.S.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Pasechnik A.V.,University of Turku | Manset N.,CFHT Corporation | Carciofi A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 19 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M⊙) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R⊙. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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