Observatorio de Cantabria

San Martín de Elines, Spain

Observatorio de Cantabria

San Martín de Elines, Spain

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Namekata K.,Kyoto University | Isogai K.,Kyoto University | Kato T.,Kyoto University | Littlefield C.,University of Notre Dame | And 41 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2017

We report on a superoutburst of a WZ Sge-type dwarf nova (DN), ASASSN-15po. The light curve showed the main superoutburst and multiple rebrightenings. In this outburst, we observed early superhumps and growing (stage A) superhumps with periods of 0.050454(2) and 0.051809(13) d, respectively. We estimated that the mass ratio of secondary to primary (q) is 0.0699(8) by using Porb and a superhump period PSH of stage A. ASASSN-15po [Porb ∼ 72.6 min] is the first DN with an orbital period between 67-76 min. Although the theoretical predicted period minimum Pmin of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables (CVs) is about 65-70 min, the observational cut-off of the orbital period distribution at 80 min implies that the period minimum is about 82min, and the value is widely accepted. We suggest the following four possibilities: the object is (1) a theoretical period minimum object, (2) a binary with a evolved secondary, (3) a binary with a metal-poor (Popullation II) seconday, or (4) a binary which was born with a brown-dwarf donor below the period minimum.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Monard B.,Backyard | Vanmunster T.,Backyard | And 77 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2016

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SUUMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZSge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSSJ074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SUUMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN- 15cy has a short (0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN- 15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts. © The Author 2016.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Maehara H.,Kyoto University | Miller I.,Furzehill House | Ohshima T.,Kyoto University | And 76 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2012

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected the times of superhump maxima for 51 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2010-2011 season. Although most of the new data for systems with short superhump periods basically confirmed the findings by Kato et al. (ibid.) and Kato et al. (2010, PASJ, 62, 1525), the long-period system GX Cas showed an exceptionally large positive-period derivative. An analysis of public Kepler data of V344 Lyr and V1504 Cyg yielded less-striking stage transitions. In V344 Lyr, there was a prominent secondary component growing during the late stage of superoutbursts, and this component persisted for at least two more cycles of successive normal outbursts. We also investigated the superoutburst of two conspicuous eclipsing objects: HT Cas and the WZ Sge-type object SDSS J080434.20+510349.2. Strong beat phenomena were detected in both objects, and late-stage superhumps in the latter object had an almost constant luminosity during repeated rebrightenings. The WZ Sge-type object SDSS J133941.11+484727.5 showed a phase reversal around the rapid fading from the superoutburst. The object showed a prominent beat phenomenon, even after the end of the superoutburst. A pilot study of superhump amplitudes indicated that the amplitude of superhumps is strongly correlated with the orbital period, and the dependence on the inclination is weak in systems with inclinations smaller than 80°. © 2012. Astronomical Society of Japan.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Maehara H.,Kyoto University | Masi G.,Virtual Telescope Project | And 85 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZSge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogenrich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The massratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods. © 2013. Astronomical Society of Japan.


Ohshima T.,Kyoto University | Kato T.,Kyoto University | Pavlenko E.,Crimean Astrophysical Observatory | Akazawa H.,Okayama University of Science | And 45 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2014

We carried out photometric observations of the SUUMa-type dwarf nova ERUMa during 2011 and 2012, which showed the existence of persistent negative superhumps even during the superoutburst. We performed a two-dimensional period analysis of its light curves by using a method called "least absolute shrinkage and selection operator" (Lasso) and the "phase dispersion minimization" (PDM) analysis, and found that the period of negative superhumps systematically changed between a superoutburst and the next superoutburst. The trend of the period change can be interpreted as a reflection of the change of the disk radius. This change is in agreement with the one predicted by the thermal tidal instability model. The normal outburst during a supercycle showed a general trend that the rising rate to its maximum becomes slower as the next superoutburst is approaching. The change can be interpreted as the consequence of the increased gas-stream flow into the inner region of the disk as a result of the tilted disk. Some of superoutbursts were found to be triggered by a precursor normal outburst when the positive superhump appeared to develop. The positive and negative superhumps coexisted during the superoutburst. Positive superhumps were prominent only for four or five days after the supermaximum, while the signal of negative superhumps became stronger after the middle phase of the superoutburst plateau. A simple combination of the positive and negative superhumps was found to be insufficient for reproduction of the complex profile variation. We were able to detect the developing phase of positive superhumps (stage A superhumps) for the first time in ER UMa-type dwarf novae. Using the period of stage A superhumps, we obtained a mass ratio of 0.100(15), which indicates that ERUMa is on the ordinary evolutional track of cataclysmic variable stars. © The Author 2014.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | Dubovsky P.A.,Vihorlat Observatory | Kudzej I.,Vihorlat Observatory | And 92 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2015

Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, observed mainly during the 2014-2015 season, and characterized these objects. Our project has greatly improved the statistics of the distribution of orbital periods, which is a good approximation of the distribution of cataclysmic variables at the terminal evolutionary stage, and has confirmed the presence of a period minimum at a period of 0.053 d and a period spike just above this period. The number density monotonically decreased toward the longer period and there was no strong indication of a period gap. We detected possible negative superhumps in Z Cha. It is possible that normal outbursts are also suppressed by the presence of a disk tilt in this system. There was no indication of enhanced orbital humps just preceding the superoutburst, and this result favors the thermal-tidal disk instability as the origin of superoutbursts. We detected superhumps in three AM CVn-type dwarf novae. Our observations and recent other detections suggest that 8% of objects showing dwarf nova-type outbursts are AM CVn-type objects. AM CVn-type objects and EI Psc-type objects may be more abundant than previously recognized. OT J213806, a WZ Sge-type object, exhibited remarkably different features between the 2010 and 2014 superoutbursts. Although the 2014 superoutburst was much fainter, the plateau phase was shorter than the 2010 one, and the course of the rebrightening phase was similar. This object indicates that the O - C diagrams of superhumps can indeed be variable, at least in WZ Sge-type objects. Four deeply eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf novae (ASASSN-13cx, ASASSN-14ag, ASASSN-15bu, and NSV 4618) were identified. We studied long-term trends in supercycles in MM Hya and CY UMa and found systematic variations of supercycles of ∼20%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Kato T.,Kyoto University | Dubovsky P.A.,Vihorlat Observatory | Kudzej I.,Vihorlat Observatory | Hambsch F.-J.,Groupe Europeen dObservations Stellaires GEOS | And 90 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan | Year: 2014

Continuing the project undertaken by Kato et al. (2009), we collected times of superhump maxima for 56 SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2013-2014 season and characterized these objects. We detected negative superhumps in VW Hyi and indicated that the low number of normal outbursts in some supercycles can be interpreted as a result of disk tilt. This finding, combined with the Kepler observation of V1504 Cyg and V344 Lyr, suggests that disk tilt is responsible for modulating the outburst pattern in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. We also studied the deeply eclipsing WZ Sge-type dwarf nova MASTER OT J005740.99+443101.5 and found evidence of a sharp eclipse during the phase of early superhumps. The profile can be reproduced by a combination of the eclipse of the axisymmetric disk and the uneclipsed light source of early superhumps. This finding shows the lack of evidence for a greatly enhanced hot spot during the early stage of WZ Sge-type outburst. We detected growing (stage A) superhumps in MN Dra and give a suggestion that some of SU UMa-type dwarf novae situated near the critical condition of tidal instability may show long-lasting stage A superhumps. The large negative period derivatives reported in such systems can be understood as a result of the combination of stage A and B superhumps. Two WZ Sge-type dwarf novae, AL Com and ASASSN-13ck, showed a long-lasting (plateau-type) rebrightening. In the early phase of their rebrightenings, both objects showed a precursor-like outburst, suggesting that the long-lasting rebrightening is triggered by a precursor outburst. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Ergon M.,The Oskar Klein Center | Sollerman J.,The Oskar Klein Center | Fraser M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Pastorello A.,National institute for astrophysics | And 27 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh for the first 100 days. We complement our extensive dataset with Swift ultra-violet (UV) and Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data to build a UV to MIR bolometric lightcurve using both photometric and spectroscopic data. Hydrodynamical modelling of the SN based on this bolometric lightcurve have been presented in Bersten et al. (2012, ApJ, 757, 31). We find that the absorption minimum for the hydrogen lines is never seen below ~11 000 km s-1 but approaches this value as the lines get weaker. This suggests that the interface between the helium core and hydrogen rich envelope is located near this velocity in agreement with the Bersten et al. (2012) He4R270 ejecta model. Spectral modelling of the hydrogen lines using this ejecta model supports the conclusion and we find a hydrogen mass of 0.01-0.04 M ⊙ to be consistent with the observed spectral evolution. We estimate that the photosphere reaches the helium core at 5-7 days whereas the helium lines appear between ~10 and ~15 days, close to the photosphere and then move outward in velocity until ~40 days. This suggests that increasing non-thermal excitation due to decreasing optical depth for the γ-rays is driving the early evolution of these lines. The Spitzer 4.5 μm band shows a significant flux excess, which we attribute to CO fundamental band emission or a thermal dust echo although further work using late time data is needed. Thedistance and in particular the extinction, where we use spectral modelling to put further constraints, is discussed in some detail as well as the sensitivity of the hydrodynamical modelling to errors in these quantities. We also provide and discuss pre-and post-explosion observations of the SN site which shows a reduction by ~75 percent in flux at the position of the yellow supergiant coincident with SN 2011dh. The B, V and r band decline rates of 0.0073, 0.0090 and 0.0053 mag day-1 respectively are consistent with the remaining flux being emitted by the SN. Hence we find that the star was indeed the progenitor of SN 2011dh as previously suggested by Maund et al. (2011, ApJ, 739, L37) and which is also consistent with the results from the hydrodynamical modelling. © 2014 ESO.

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