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Torrey P.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Cox T.J.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Hernquist L.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Nuclear inflows of metal-poor interstellar gas triggered by galaxy interactions can account for the systematically lower central oxygen abundances observed in local interacting galaxies. Here, we investigate the metallicity evolution of a large set of simulations of colliding galaxies. Our models include cooling, star formation, feedback, and a new stochastic method for tracking the mass recycled back to the interstellar medium from stellar winds and supernovae. We study the influence of merger-induced inflows, enrichment, gas consumption, and galactic winds in determining the nuclear metallicity. The central metallicity is primarily a competition between the inflow of low-metallicity gas and enrichment from star formation. An average depression in the nuclear metallicity of 0.07 is found for gas-poor disk-disk interactions. Gas-rich disk-disk interactions, on the other hand, typically have an enhancement in the central metallicity that is positively correlated with the gas content. The simulations fare reasonably well when compared to the observed mass-metallicity and separation-metallicity relationships, but further study is warranted. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Dave R.,University of the Western Cape | Dave R.,Observatory | Dave R.,African Institute for Mathematical Sciences | Dave R.,University of Arizona | And 4 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We examine the global HI properties of galaxies in quarter billion particle cosmological simulations using GADGET-2, focusing on howgalactic outflows impactHI content. We consider four outflow models, including a new one (ezw) motivated by recent interstellar medium simulations in which the wind speed and mass loading factor scale as expected for momentumdriven outflows for larger galaxies and energy-driven outflows for dwarfs (s >75 km s-1). To obtain predicted HI masses, we employ a simple but effective local correction for particle selfshielding and an observationally constrained transition from neutral to molecular hydrogen. Our ezw simulation produces an HI mass function whose faint-end slope of -1.3 agrees well with observations from the Arecibo Fast Legacy ALFA survey; other models agree less well. Satellite galaxies have a bimodal distribution in HI fraction versus halo mass, with smaller satellites and/or those in larger haloes more often being HI deficient. At a given stellar mass, HI content correlates with the star formation rate and inversely correlates with metallicity, as expected if driven by stochasticity in the accretion rate. To higher redshifts, massive HI galaxies disappear and the mass function steepens. The global cosmic HI density conspires to remain fairly constant from z ~ 5?0, but the relative contribution from smaller galaxies increases with redshift. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Wong K.C.,University of Arizona | Keeton C.R.,Rutgers University | Williams K.A.,University of Texas at Austin | Momcheva I.G.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Zabludoff A.I.,University of Arizona
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

Using new photometric and spectroscopic data in the fields of nine strong gravitational lenses that lie in galaxy groups, we analyze the effects of both the local group environment and line-of-sight (LOS) galaxies on the lens potential. We use Monte Carlo simulations to derive the shear directly from measurements of the complex lens environment, providing the first detailed independent check of the shear obtained from lens modeling. We account for possible tidal stripping of the group galaxies by varying the fraction of total mass apportioned between the group dark matter halo and individual group galaxies. The environment produces an average shear of γ = 0.08 (ranging from 0.02 to 0.17), significant enough to affect quantities derived from lens observables. However, the direction and magnitude of the shears do not match those obtained from lens modeling in three of the six four-image systems in our sample (B1422, RXJ1131, and WFI2033). The source of this disagreement is not clear, implying that the assumptions inherent in both the environment and lens model approaches must be reconsidered. If only the local group environment of the lens is included, the average shear is γ = 0.05 (ranging from 0.01 to 0.14), indicating that LOS contributions to the lens potential are not negligible.We isolate the effects of various theoretical and observational uncertainties on our results. Of those uncertainties, the scatter in the Faber-Jackson relation and error in the group centroid position dominate. Future surveys of lens environments should prioritize spectroscopic sampling of both the local lens environment and objects along the LOS, particularly those bright (I <21.5) galaxies projected within 5' of the lens. © 2011 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Colucci J.E.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Bernstein R.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Cameron S.A.,Cerro Coso Community College | McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ2-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (15m) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age< 2Gyr) in our sample. In both the IL and stellar abundances we find evolution of [α/Fe] with [Fe/H] and age. Fe-peak abundance ratios are similar to those in the Milky Way (MW), with the exception of [Cu/Fe] and [Mn/Fe], which are sub-solar at high metallicities. The heavy elements Ba, La, Nd, Sm, and Eu are significantly enhanced in the youngest clusters. Also, the heavy to light s-process ratio is elevated relative to the MW ([Ba/Y]>+0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Saito R.K.,University of Santiago de Chile | Zoccali M.,University of Santiago de Chile | McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Minniti D.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 4 more authors.
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2011

We analyzed the distribution of the red clump (RC) stars throughout the Galactic bulge using Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We mapped the position of the RC in 1deg2 fields within the area |l| ≤ 85 and 35 ≤ |b| ≤ 85, for a total of 170deg2. The single RC seen in the central area splits into two components at high Galactic longitudes in both hemispheres, produced by two structures at different distances along the same line of sight. The X-shape is clearly visible in the Z-X plane for longitudes close to the l = 0° axis. Crude measurements of the space densities of RC stars in the bright and faint RC populations are consistent with the adopted RC distances, providing further supporting evidence that the X-structure is real, and that there is approximate front-back symmetry in our bulge fields. We conclude that the Milky Way bulge has an X-shaped structure within |l| ≲ 2°, seen almost edge-on with respect to the line of sight. Additional deep near-infrared photometry extending into the innermost bulge regions combined with spectroscopic data is needed in order to discriminate among the different possibilities that can cause the observed X-shaped structure. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Colucci J.E.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Bernstein R.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Cameron S.A.,University of Michigan | McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

In this paper, we refine our method for the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of the integrated light of unresolved globular clusters (GCs). This method was previously demonstrated for the analysis of old (>10Gyr) Milky Way (MW) GCs. Here, we extend the technique to young clusters using a training set of nine GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, we use 20-100 Fe lines per cluster to successfully constrain the ages of old clusters to within a 5Gyr range, the ages of 2Gyr clusters to a 1-2Gyr range, and the ages of the youngest clusters (0.05-1 Gyr) to a 200 Myr range. We also demonstrate that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with any age less than 12Gyr with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1-0.25dex) than those obtained for old MW GCs (0.1dex); the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. In this paper, we present only Fe abundances and ages. In the next paper in this series, we present our complete analysis of 20 elements for which we are able to measure abundances. For several of the clusters in this sample, there are no high-resolution abundances in the literature from individual member stars; our results are the first detailed chemical abundances available. The spectra used in this paper were obtained at Las Campanas with the echelle on the du Pont Telescope and with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Colucci J.E.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Duran M.F.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Bernstein R.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2013

We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Zoccali M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

From Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry, we find two red clump (RC) populations coexisting in fields toward the Galactic bulge at latitudes |b| >5°5, ranging over ∼13° in longitude and 20° in latitude. These RC peaks indicate two stellar populations separated by ∼2.3 kpc; at (l, b) = (+1, -8) the two RCs are located at 6.5 and 8.8 ± 0.2 kpc. The double-peaked RC is inconsistent with a tilted bar morphology. Most of our fields show the two RCs at roughly constant distance with longitude, also inconsistent with a tilted bar; however, an underlying bar may be present. Stellar densities in the two RCs change dramatically with longitude: on the positive longitude side the foreground RC is dominant, while the background RC dominates negative longitudes. A line connecting the maxima of the foreground and background populations is tilted to the line of sight by ∼20° ± 4°, similar to claims for the tilt of a Galactic bar. The distance between the two RCs decreases toward the Galactic plane; seen edge-on the bulge is X-shaped, resembling some extragalactic bulges and the results of N-body simulations. The center of this X is consistent with the distance to the Galactic center, although better agreement would occur if the bulge is 2-3 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc. Our observations may be understood if the two RC populations emanate, nearly tangentially, from the Galactic bar ends, in a funnel shape. Alternatively, the X, or double funnel, may continue to the Galactic center. From the Sun, this would appear peanut/box shaped, but X-shaped when viewed tangentially. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

McWilliam A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Wallerstein G.,University of Washington | Mottini M.,University of Washington
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

From chemical abundance analysis of stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), we conclude that the α-element deficiencies cannot be due to the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) time-delay scenario of Tinsley. Instead, the evidence points to low [α/Fe] ratios resulting from an initial mass function (IMF) deficient in the highest mass stars. The critical evidence is the 0.4 dex deficiency of [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and other hydrostatic elements, contrasting with the normal trend of r-process [Eu/Fe]r with [Fe/H]. Supporting evidence comes from the hydrostatic element (O, Mg, Na, Al, Cu) [X/Fe] ratios, which are inconsistent with iron added to the Milky Way (MW) disk trends. Also, the ratio of hydrostatic to explosive (Si, Ca, Ti) element abundances suggests a relatively top-light IMF. Abundance similarities with the LMC, Fornax, and IC 1613 suggest that their α-element deficiencies also resulted from IMFs lacking the most massive SNe II. The top-light IMF, as well as the normal trend of r-process [Eu/Fe]r with [Fe/H] in Sgr, indicates that massive SNe II (≳30 M ⊙) are not major sources of r-process elements. High [La/Y] ratios, consistent with leaky-box chemical evolution, are confirmed but ∼0.3 dex larger than theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) predictions. This suggests that a substantial increase in the theoretical 13C pocket in low-mass AGB stars is required. Sgr has the lowest [Rb/Zr] ratios known, consistent with pollution by low-mass (≲2 M ⊙) AGB stars near [Fe/H] = -0.6, likely resulting from leaky-box chemical evolution. The [Cu/O] trends in Sgr and the MW suggest that Cu yields increase with both metallicity and stellar mass, as expected from Cu production by the weak s-process in massive stars. Finally, we present an updated hyperfine splitting line list, an abundance analysis of Arcturus, and further develop our error analysis formalism. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Dave R.,University of Arizona | Oppenheimer B.D.,Leiden University | Katz N.,University of Massachussetts | Kollmeier J.A.,Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington | Weinberg D.H.,Ohio State University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons at all cosmic epochs. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the IGM from z= 2 → 0 in (48 h-1 Mpc)3, 110 million particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using three prescriptions for galactic outflows. We focus on the evolution of IGM physical properties, and how such properties are traced by Lyα absorption as detectable using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Our results broadly confirm the canonical picture that most Lyα absorbers arise from highly ionized gas tracing filamentary large-scale structure. Growth of structure causes gas to move from the diffuse photoionized IGM into other cosmic phases, namely stars, cold and hot gas within galaxy haloes, and the unbound and shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). By today, baryons are comparably divided between bound phases (35 per cent in our favoured outflow model), the diffuse IGM (41 per cent) and the WHIM (24 per cent). Here we (re)define the WHIM as gas with overdensities lower than that in haloes (today) and temperatures T > 105 K, to more closely align it with the 'missing baryons' that are not easily detectable in emission or Lyα absorption. Strong galactic outflows can have a noticeable impact on the temperature of the IGM, though with our favoured momentum-driven wind scalings they do not. When we (mildly) tune our assumed photoionizing background to match the observed evolution of the Lyα mean flux decrement, we obtain line count evolution statistics that broadly agree with available (pre-COS) observations. We predict a column density distribution slope of for our favoured wind model, in agreement with recent observational estimates, and it becomes shallower with redshift. Winds have a mostly minimal impact, but they do result in a shallower column density slope and more strong lines. With improved statistics, the frequency of strong lines can be a valuable diagnostic of outflows, and the momentum-driven wind model matches existing data significantly better than the two alternatives we consider. The relationship between column density and physical density broadens mildly from z= 2 → 0, and evolves as for diffuse absorbers, consistent with previous studies. Linewidth distributions are quite sensitive to spectral resolution; COS should yield significantly broader lines than higher resolution data. Thermal contributions to linewidths are typically subdominant, so linewidths only loosely reflect the temperature of the absorbing gas. This will hamper attempts to quantify the WHIM using broad Lyα absorbers, though it may still be possible to do so statistically. Together, COS data and simulations such as these will provide key insights into the physical conditions of the dominant reservoir of baryons over the majority of cosmic time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

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