Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Rusangiza B.K.,Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma | Mavonga T.,Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma | Lesage P.,University of Savoy | Kavotha K.S.,Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma | And 2 more authors.
Geographica Pannonica | Year: 2012

Swarms of Long Period earthquakes generated by the Nyamuragira volcano for the period from January 2000 to November 2006 before 21 January 2000, 5 February 2001, 25 July 2002, 8 May 2004 and 27 November 2006 Nyamuragira eruptions have been analyzed. Interest is focused on the frequency distribution of these earthquakes and on the variation of the m-value of observed earthquake swarms. It is found that m-values which generally vary between 0.9 and 1.6, and shifts towards larger values of 1.7 to 3.23 two to four months prior to eruptions of the volcano.

Bobrowski N.,University of Heidelberg | Von Glasow R.,University of East Anglia | Giuffrida G.B.,Institute Nazionale Of Geofisica E Vulcanologia | Tedesco D.,The Second University of Naples | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres | Year: 2015

Airborne and ground-based differential optical absorption spectroscopy observations have been carried out at the volcano Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo) to measure SO2 and bromine monoxide (BrO) in the plume in March 2004 and June 2007, respectively. Additionally filter pack and multicomponent gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) measurements were carried out in June 2007. Our measurements provide valuable information on the chemical composition of the volcanic plume emitted from the lava lake of Nyiragongo. The main interest of this study has been to investigate for the first time the bromine emission flux of Nyiragongo (a rift volcano) and the BrO formation in its volcanic plume. Measurement data and results from a numerical model of the evolution of BrO in Nyiragongo volcanic plume are compared with earlier studies of the volcanic plume of Etna (Italy). Even though the bromine flux from Nyiragongo (2.6 t/d) is slightly greater than that from Etna (1.9 t/d), the BrO/SO2 ratio (maximum 7 × 10-5) is smaller than in the plume of Etna (maximum 2.1 × 10-4). A one-dimensional photochemical model to investigate halogen chemistry in the volcanic plumes of Etna and Nyiragongo was initialized using data from Multi-GAS and filter pack measurements. Model runs showed that the differences in the composition of volcanic volatiles led to a smaller fraction of total bromine being present as BrO in the Nyiragongo plume and to a smaller BrO/SO2 ratio. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Dingwell A.,Uppsala University | Rutgersson A.,Uppsala University | Claremar B.,Uppsala University | Arellano S.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Mt. Nyiragongo is an active volcano located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, close to the border of Rwanda and about 15 km north of the city of Goma (~ 1,000,000 inhabitants). Gases emitted from Nyiragongo might pose a persistent hazard to local inhabitants and the environment. While both ground- and satellite-based observations of the emissions exist, prior to this study, no detailed analysis of the dispersion of the emissions have been made. We have conducted a dispersion study, using a modelling system to determine the geographical distribution of SO2.A combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART-WRF) and flux data based on DOAS measurements from the NOVAC-network is used. Since observations can only be made during the day, we use random sampling of fluxes and ensemble modelling to estimate night-time emissions.Seasonal variations in the dispersion follows the migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. In June-August, the area with the highest surface concentrations is located to the northwest, and in December-February, to the southwest of the source. Diurnal variations in surface concentrations were determined by the development of the planetary boundary layer and the lake-/land breeze cycle around lake Kivu. Both processes contribute to low surface concentrations during the day and high concentrations during the night. However, the strong northerly trade winds in November-March weakened the lake breeze, contributing to higher daytime surface concentrations along the northern shore of Lake Kivu, including the city of Goma. For further analysis and measurements, it is important to include both seasonal and diurnal cycles in order to safely cover periods of high and potentially hazardous concentrations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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