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Scott P.,Imperial College London | Grevesse N.,University of Liège | Asplund M.,Australian National University | Sauval A.J.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

The chemical composition of the Sun is an essential piece of reference data for astronomy, cosmology, astroparticle, space and geophysics: elemental abundances of essentially all astronomical objects are referenced to the solar composition, and basically every process involving the Sun depends on its composition. This article, dealing with the intermediate-mass elements Na to Ca, is the first in a series describing the comprehensive re-determination of the solar composition. In this series we severely scrutinise all ingredients of the analysis across all elements, to obtain the most accurate, homogeneous and reliable results possible. We employ a highly realistic 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere, which has successfully passed an arsenal of observational diagnostics. For comparison, and to quantify remaining systematic errors, we repeat the analysis using three different 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres (marcs, miss and Holweger & Müller 1974, Sol. Phys., 39, 19) and a horizontally and temporally-averaged version of the 3D model (〈3D〉). We account for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) wherever possible. We have scoured the literature for the best possible input data, carefully assessing transition probabilities, hyperfine splitting, partition functions and other data for inclusion in the analysis. We have put the lines we use through a very stringent quality check in terms of their observed profiles and atomic data, and discarded all that we suspect to be blended. Our final recommended 3D+NLTE abundances are: log εNa = 6:21 ± 0:04, log εMg = 7:59 ± 0:04, log εAl = 6:43 ± 0:04, log εSi = 7:51 ± 0:03, log εP = 5:41 ± 0:03, log εS = 7:13 ± 0:03, log εK = 5:04 ± 0:05 and log εCa = 6:32 ± 0:03. The uncertainties include both statistical and systematic errors. Our results are systematically smaller than most previous ones with the 1D semi-empirical Holweger & Müller model, whereas the 〈3D〉 model returns abundances very similar to the full 3D calculations. This analysis provides a complete description and a slight update of the results presented in Asplund et al. (2009, ARA&A, 47, 481) for Na to Ca, and includes full details of all lines and input data used. © ESO 2014.


Nore C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Guermond J.-L.,Texas A&M University | Laguerre R.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Leorat J.,Luth | Luddens F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2012

It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamics code that a short Taylor-Couette setup with a body force can sustain dynamo action. The magnetic threshold is comparable to what is usually obtained in spherical geometries. The linear dynamo is characterized by a rotating equatorial dipole. The nonlinear regime is characterized by fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies and a tilted dipole whose axial component exhibits aperiodic reversals during the time evolution. These numerical evidences of dynamo action in a short Taylor-Couette setup may be useful for developing an experimental device. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Campion R.,Roosevelt University | Martinez-Cruz M.,Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica | Lecocq T.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Caudron C.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Volcanology | Year: 2012

Remotely sensed measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) emitted by Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) are reported for the period September 2009-January 2011. These measurements were obtained using images from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflexion radiometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument and a ground-based UV camera. These three very different instruments provide flux measurements in good agreement with each other, which demonstrate that they can be integrated for monitoring SO2 fluxes. Fluxes from Turrialba increased fourfold in January 2010, following a phreatic explosion that formed a degassing vent in the W crater of Turrialba. Since then, the SO2 flux has remained high (30-50 kg/s) but seems to be showing a slowly decreasing trend. We interpret this evolution as the start of open vent degassing from a recently intruded magma body. The opening of the degassing vent decreased the confining pressure of the magma body and allowed the gases to bypass the hydrothermal system. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Boes X.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Moran S.B.,University of Rhode Island | King J.,University of Rhode Island | Cagatay M.N.,Technical University of Istanbul | Hubert-Ferrari A.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique
Journal of Paleolimnology | Year: 2010

In 1999, the large surface-rupturing earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce completed a 60-year cycle that included a westward migration of nine consecutive large earthquake failures (>50 km surface rupture), which started with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in eastern Turkey. In this study, we focused on seismic cycles and seismic risk predictability along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Toward the west end of the NAF (26°E-32°E, i.e. Bolu), large earthquake frequency is measured from either historic earthquake catalogs, or geologic records from isolated outcrops and marine sediment cores from the Marmara Sea. In comparison, the eastern part of the NAF zone (32°E-42°E) is less well documented by palaeo-seismologic archives. Thus, the sediment records of lake basins located on the eastern NAF zone constitute a unique opportunity for testing a new palaeo-seismologic approach. To this end, we used a diverse array of complementary methods involving: (1) a 600-km transect of fault-related lakes, (2) sedimentologic observations on cores from six lakes, and (3) a comparison between records of catastrophic sediment transfers in lakes (i. e. radionuclide chronomarkers and erosion tracers) and historic earthquake reports. Our study indicates that lakes along the NAF are sensitive geologic recorders of large surface-rupturing earthquakes (surface-wave magnitude (Ms) ≥ 6.9); smaller intensities are not recorded. The most responsive lake systems exhibit increases in sediment accumulation by a factor of >40 for a >3-m strike-slip displacement (Ms ≥ 7). However, based on results from the 1939 Erzincan earthquake (Ms = 7.8) chronostratigraphic marker, large surface-rupturing earthquakes are detected only by certain lake records and not by others. Matching multiple lake records along the NAF provides information both on the location of a surface rupture of a paleo-earthquake as well as its magnitude. Finally, the shallow lake basins along the NAF could potentially document cycles of large seismic events for at least the late Holocene. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Van Camp M.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Metivier L.,CNRS Pascal Institute | Metivier L.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | De Viron O.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

The influence of the hydrological noise on repeated gravity measurements has been investigated on the basis of the time series of 18 superconducting gravimeters (SGs) and on predictions inferred from the Land Dynamics (LaD) world-Gascoyne land waterenergy balances model. Presently, the global hydrologic models are not precise enough to fulfill the geodetic requirements and are not efficient enough to separate the hydrology from tectonic motion in the land-based gravity time series. However, although the LaD model predictions and the gravity observations present significant differences in the time domain, it is shown that they have similar amplitudes in the frequency domain in most of the cases. The time series of the Global Geodynamics Project make it possible to investigate phenomena of a few years in the best case. Given the similarity between the power spectral densities (PSDs) of the LaD model predictions and the SG measurements when taken at the same epoch, it makes sense to use the LaD model to study the spectral behavior of the hydrological effects down to the decadal time scale, which is not yet possible with land-based measurements. It is shown that the PSDs of the hydrological effects flattens at low frequency and is characterized by a generalized Gauss-Markov structure. With such a noise level, the time necessary to measure a gravity rate of change of 1 nm/s 2/a, at the 1σ level should not extend any longer than 17 years at the locations where the hydrological effects play a major role. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Valty P.,University Paris Diderot | De Viron O.,University Paris Diderot | Panet I.,University Paris Diderot | Van Camp M.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Legrand J.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the precision of the estimation of geophysical fluid load deformation computed from GRACE space gravity, GPS vertical displacement and geophysical fluids models [Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for ocean, atmosphere and hydrology], using the three-cornered hat method. This method allows the estimation of the variance of the errors of each technique, when the same quantity is monitored by three instruments with independent errors. Applied on a network of stations, several points of viewcan be considered: the technique level (in order to determine the error of each technique: GRACE, GPS and GCMs), the solution level (allowing to compare the precision of the same techniquewhen different strategies/models are used), and the station level (in order to emphasize local anomalies and geographical patterns). In particular, our results show a precision of the loading vertical displacement at the level of 1 mm when using GRACE or the fluid models, and of 2 mm using GPS. We do not find significant differences between the precision of different solutions of the same techniques, even when there are strong differences in the data processing. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.


Grevesse N.,University of Liège | Asplund M.,Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics | Sauval A.J.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Scott P.,The Oskar Klein Center
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

We have very recently re-determined the abundances of nearly all the available chemical elements in the solar photosphere, from lithium to thorium (Asplund et al. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47, 481 (2009)). This new complete and homogeneous analysis results from a very careful selection of spectral lines of all the indicators of the abundances present in the solar photospheric spectrum, from a discussion of the atomic and molecular data, and from an analysis of these lines based on a new 3D model of the solar outer layers, taking non-LTE effects into account when possible. We present these new results, compare them with other recent solar data as well as with recent results for the solar neighborhood, and discuss some of their most important implications as well as some of the atomic data we still urgently need. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.


Vu T.H.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Gloesener E.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique | Choukroun M.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Ibourichene A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Hodyss R.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Clathrate hydrates, ice-like crystalline compounds in which small guest molecules are enclosed inside cages formed by tetrahedrally hydrogen-bonded water molecules, are naturally abundant on Earth and are generally expected to exist on icy celestial bodies. A prototypical example is Saturn's moon Titan, where dissociation of methane clathrates, a major crustal component, could contribute significantly to the replenishment of atmospheric methane. Ammonia is an important clathrate inhibiting agent that may be present (potentially at high concentrations) in Titan's interior. In this study, low-temperature Raman experiments are conducted to examine the dissociation point of tetrahydrofuran clathrates, an ambient-pressure analogue of methane clathrates, over a wide range of ammonia concentrations from 0 to 25 wt %. A phase diagram for the H2O-THF-NH3 system is generated, showing two main results: (i) ammonia lowers the dissociation point of clathrate hydrates to a similar extent compared to the melting of water ice and (ii) THF clathrate exhibits a "liquidus-like" behavior in the presence of ammonia, with a eutectic temperature of about 203.6 K. As temperatures higher than this estimated eutectic are anticipated within Titan's icy crust, these results imply that partial dissociation of clathrates can occur readily and may contribute to outgassing from the interior. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Scott P.,Imperial College London | Asplund M.,Australian National University | Grevesse N.,University of Liège | Bergemann M.,University of Cambridge | Sauval A.J.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

We redetermine the abundances of all iron group nuclei in the Sun, based on neutral and singly-ionised lines of Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni in the solar spectrum. We employ a realistic 3D hydrodynamic model solar atmosphere, corrections for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), stringent line selection procedures and high quality observational data. We have scoured the literature for the best quality oscillator strengths, hyperfine constants and isotopic separations available for our chosen lines. We find log ∈Sc = 3.16 ± 0.04, log ∈Ti = 4.93 ± 0.04, log ∈V = 3.89 ± 0.08, log ∈Cr = 5.62 ± 0.04, log ∈Mn = 5.42 ± 0.04, log ∈Fe = 7.47 ± 0.04, log ∈Co = 4.93 ± 0.05 and log ∈Ni = 6.20 ± 0.04. Our uncertainties factor in both statistical and systematic errors (the latter estimated for possible errors in the model atmospheres and NLTE line formation). The new abundances are generally in good agreement with the CI meteoritic abundances but with some notable exceptions. This analysis constitutes both a full exposition and a slight update of the preliminary results we presented in Asplund et al. (2009, ARA&A, 47, 481), including full line lists and details of all input data we employed. © ESO 2014.


Grevesse N.,University of Liège | Scott P.,Imperial College London | Asplund M.,Australian National University | Sauval A.J.,Observatoire Royal de Belgique
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

We re-evaluate the abundances of the elements in the Sun from copper (Z = 29) to thorium (Z = 90). Our results are mostly based on neutral and singly-ionised lines in the solar spectrum. We use the latest 3D hydrodynamic solar model atmosphere, and in a few cases also correct for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) using non-LTE (NLTE) calculations performed in 1D. In order to minimise statistical and systematic uncertainties, we make stringent line selections, employ the highest-quality observational data and carefully assess oscillator strengths, hyperfine constants and isotopic separations available in the literature, for every line included in our analysis. Our results are typically in good agreement with the abundances in the most pristine meteorites, but there are some interesting exceptions. This analysis constitutes both a full exposition and a slight update of the relevant parts of the preliminary results we presented in Asplund et al. (2009, ARA&A, 47, 481), including full line lists and details of all input data that we have employed. © ESO 2014.

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