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Pascal M.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Falq G.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Wagner V.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Chatignoux E.,Observatoire Regional de la Sante Ile de France | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Background: Multicentric studies in Europe are required to gain knowledge on the short-term impacts of PM2.5 and PM10-2.5. We present an analysis of the short-term associations between particulate matters (PM10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5) and mortality by causes, age-groups and seasons in nine French cities. Methods: The associations between PM and daily mortality were investigated in each city using a generalized additive Poisson regression model for the 2000-2006 period. The percent increases in the mortality rate were estimated for a 10μg/m3 increase and for an interquartile range increase in PM levels in each city, for the whole year and by season. The models also compared the PM effect observed on "non-warm" days and on "warm" days. Results: A significant effect of PM10 (+0.8% CI 95% [0.2; 1.5] for a 10μg/m3 increase) and PM2.5 (+0.7% [-0.1; 1.6]) on all-ages non-accidental mortality whole year was observed. The largest impacts were observed on all-ages cardiovascular mortality during summer for PM2.5 (+5.1% [1.8; 8.4]) and PM10-2.5 (+7.2% [2.8; 11.7]). These estimates were lowered when the model included PM2.5 and PM10-2.5. We also report a significant interaction between warm days and PM. Adjusting PM on ozone did not modify the results for the whole year, but decreased the estimates for summer, when a high correlation is observed between these pollutants. Conclusions: Our results confirm the short-term impacts of PM10 on mortality, even at concentrations complying with the European annual regulation. They underline the short-term impacts of PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 and call for the setting of regulation values for these PM indicators. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Pascal M.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Wagner V.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Chatignoux E.,Observatoire Regional de la Sante Ile de France | Falq G.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Background: Several epidemiological studies have observed significant short-term associations between ozone and daily mortality. In a context of climate change, it is important to understand how this association is influenced by the meteorological conditions. Objectives: We investigated how season and temperature modified the short-term effect of ozone on mortality by cause in nine French urban areas during the 1998-2006 period. Methods: The relationship between daily max-8 h ozone and daily mortality was analysed in each city using a time-stratified case-crossover model for the whole year, by season, and by temperature strata. Sensitivity of the results to the statistical modelling strategy, to the choice of the temperature terms, and to the introduction of PM 2.5 was examined. Results: A 10 μg m -3 increase in daily ozone level was significantly associated with an increase in non-accidental (+0.3% [95% CI 0.1; 0.5]), cardiac (+0.7% [0.2; 1.1]) and cardiovascular mortality (+0.4% [0.0; 0.7]). The estimates were larger during summer (+0.8% [0.5; 1.2], +1.3% [0.6; 1.9] and +1.1% [0.3; 1.9] respectively) and for the warmest temperature strata (+0.9% [0.4; 1.3], +1.3% [0.6; 2.1] and +1.2% [0.3; 2.1] respectively). A significant interaction was found between ozone and warm days for non-accidental mortality. Results were robust to the sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: This study provides evidences of a larger impact of ozone when the temperatures are warmer for non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pascal M.,French National Public Health Agency | de Crouy Chanel P.,French National Public Health Agency | Wagner V.,French National Public Health Agency | Corso M.,French National Public Health Agency | And 12 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Introduction: Worldwide, air pollution has become a main environmental cause of premature mortality. This burden is largely due to fine particles. Recent cohort studies have confirmed the health risks associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 for European and French populations. We assessed the mortality impact of PM2.5 in continental France using these new results. Methods: Based on a meta-analysis of French and European cohorts, we computed a shrunken estimate of PM2.5-mortality relationship for the French population (RR 1.15 [1.05:1.25] for a 10μg/m3 increase in PM2.5). This RR was applied to PM2.5 annual concentrations estimated at a fine spatial scale, using a classical health impacts assessment method. The health benefits associated with alternative scenarios of improving air quality were computed for 36,219 French municipalities for 2007-2008. Results: 9% of the total mortality in continental France is attributable to anthropogenic PM2.5. This represents >48,000 deaths per year, and 950,000years of life lost per year, more than half occurring in urban areas larger than 100,000 inhabitants. If none of the municipalities exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value for PM2.5 (10μg/m3), the total mortality could be decreased by 3%, corresponding to 400,000years of life saved per year. Conclusion: Results were consistent with previous estimates of the long-term mortality impacts of fine particles in France. These findings show that further actions to improve air quality in France would substantially improve health. © 2016.

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