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Saint-Martin-Vésubie, France

Jacques E.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Kidane T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Tapponnier P.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Manighetti I.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2011

In August 1989, an earthquake sequence including ten events with 6.3 ≥ M ≥ 5.5 in the first two days produced widespread ground deformation in the Dôbi graben of central Afar. Numerous surface breaks with complex geometry, including fresh scarplets with vertical throws up to 30 cm high and open fissures up to 30 cm wide, were observed. Coseismic slip incremented the deformation (normal faulting, block tilting, and counterclockwise rotation of basaltic slices) accumulated in the last 2 m.y. in the transfer zone between the Dôbi and Hanle grabens. By combining maps of surface ruptures, relative event relocations with the local Djibouti network, published focal mechanisms, and source sizes, we tentatively relate most of the mainshocks of the sequence to slip on individual faults. The largest shocks at 11h16 on 20 August 1989 (MS 6.2) and at 1h09 on 21 August 1989 (MS 6.3) ruptured southern segments of the southwestern bounding fault of the graben. A dozen other faults also slipped along the edges of, and inside, the graben. On average, triggered seismic faulting propagated about 35 km northwestward along the graben in about 20 hr. Slip on the main faults was coupled with slip on secondary antithetic faults branching from them at depth. Although the Dôbi earthquakes ruptured part of the fault array between the Asal rift (1978 sequence) and the Serdo region (1969 sequence), an approximately 50-km-long gap subsists along the Der'êla half-graben. We infer the patterns of surface faulting in the Dôbi sequence, which coinvolved bookshelf-faulting about both horizontal and vertical axes, to typify the complexity of coseismic stress release in central Afar and in other active zones of distributed extension (e.g., Iceland, Abruzzi, Basin and Range). Source

Ryder I.,University of Liverpool | Rietbrock A.,University of Liverpool | Kelson K.,Fugro | Burgmann R.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2012

The M w 8.8 Maule earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile on 2010 February 27 and was the sixth largest earthquake to be recorded instrumentally. This subduction zone event was followed by thousands of aftershocks both near the plate interface and in the overriding continental crust. Here, we report on a pair of large shallow crustal earthquakes that occurred on 2010 March 11 within 15 min of each other near the town of Pichilemu, on the coast of the O'Higgins Region of Chile. Field and aerial reconnaissance following the events revealed no distinct surface rupture. We infer from geodetic data spanning both events that the ruptures occurred on synthetic SW-dipping normal faults. The first, larger rupture was followed by buried slip on a steeper fault in the hangingwall. The fault locations and geometry of the two events are additionally constrained by locations of aftershock seismicity based on the International Maule Aftershock Data Set. The maximum slip on the main fault is about 3 m and, consistent with field results, the onshore slip is close to zero near the surface. Satellite radar data also reveal that significant aseismic afterslip occurred following the two earthquakes. Coulomb stress modelling indicates that the faults were positively stressed by up to 40 bars as a result of slip on the subduction interface in the preceding megathrust event; in other words, the Pichilemu earthquakes should be considered aftershocks of the Maule earthquake. The occurrence of these extensional events suggests that regional interseismic compressive stresses are small. Several recent large shallow crustal earthquakes in the overriding plate following the 2011 M w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan may be an analogue for the triggering process at Pichilemu. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS. Source

Navratil O.,Observatoire Des Science Of Lunivers Of Grenoble | Albert M.-B.,IRSTEA
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

Reach-average hydraulic geometry (RHG) defines the relations between the average hydraulic variables estimated at river reach (water depth, velocity, channel width) and the discharge. Single log-linear models are classically used by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists and ecologists to represent these relations. In this paper, we show that these single log-linear models are not relevant in most of cases and so can lead to significant errors. RHG estimated on 15 alluvial river reaches (the catchment sizes vary from 10 km 2 to 1700 km 2) were found non-linear for two-thirds of the river reaches when considering discharges ranging from low to bankfull flows. So we propose using two power functions (or log-linear) to model these relations, i.e. the log piecewise linear model. This model can detect a discharge Qbreak, i.e. a physical transition or "break point" between both relations. From very low flows (about 30% of the median discharge) to Qbreak, a first relation is comparable to the RHG found in the literature for aquatic habitat analysis. The second relation is relevant for flows ranging from Qbreak to bankfull discharge, and therefore may be more useful for sediment transport and flood routing analysis. Averaging along a reach including several pool-riffle units makes it difficult to clearly ascribe the form of RHG to particular physical processes. The non-linearity of RHG may have multiple origins: the presence of lateral gravel bars, the hydraulic conditions of riffle cross-sections, a change in the resistance to flow with water depth (vegetation, sediment influences). Further research is needed to focus on the physical processes that govern the RHG non-linearity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

De Santis E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Minicozzi V.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Proux O.,Observatoire Des Science Of Lunivers Of Grenoble | Rossi G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2015

In this work we analyze at a structural level the mechanism by which Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions compete for binding to the Aβ peptides that is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. We collected X-ray absorption spectroscopy data on samples containing Aβ with Cu and Zn at different concentration ratios. We show that the order in which metals are added to the peptide solution matters and that, when Zn is added first, it prevents Cu from binding. On the contrary, when Cu is added first, it does not (completely) prevent Zn binding to Aβ peptides. Our analysis suggests that Cu and Zn ions are coordinated to different numbers of histidine residues depending on the [ion]:[peptide] concentration ratio. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Jacobi H.-W.,CNRS Laboratory for Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics | Lim S.,CNRS Laboratory for Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics | Menegoz M.,CNRS Laboratory for Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics | Menegoz M.,Institute Catala Of Ciencies Del Clima Ic3 | And 8 more authors.
Cryosphere | Year: 2015

Black carbon (BC) in snow in the Himalayas has recently attracted considerable interest due to its impact on snow albedo, snow and glacier melting, regional climate and water resources. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument was used to measure refractory BC (rBC) in a series of surface snow samples collected in the upper Khumbu Valley, Nepal between November 2009 and February 2012. The obtained time series indicates annual cycles with maximum rBC concentrations before the onset of the monsoon season and fast decreases during the monsoon period. Detected concentrations ranged from a few up to 70 ppb with rather large uncertainties due to the handling of the samples. Detailed modeling of the snowpack, including the detected range and an estimated upper limit of BC concentrations, was performed to study the role of BC in the seasonal snowpack. Simulations were performed for three winter seasons with the snowpack model Crocus, including a detailed description of the radiative transfer inside the snowpack. While the standard Crocus model strongly overestimates the height and the duration of the seasonal snowpack, a better calculation of the snow albedo with the new radiative transfer scheme enhanced the representation of the snow. However, the period with snow on the ground without BC in the snow was still overestimated between 37 and 66 days, which was further diminished by 8 to 15 % and more than 40 % in the presence of 100 or 300 ppb of BC. Compared to snow without BC, the albedo is reduced on average by 0.027 and 0.060 in the presence of 100 and 300 ppb BC. While the impact of increasing BC in the snow on the albedo was largest for clean snow, the impact on the local radiative forcing is the opposite. Here, increasing BC caused an even larger impact at higher BC concentrations. This effect is related to an accelerated melting of the snowpack caused by a more efficient metamorphism of the snow due to an increasing size of the snow grains with increasing BC concentrations. The melting of the winter snowpack was shifted by 3 to 10 and 17 to 27 days during the three winter seasons in the presence of 100 and 300 ppb BC compared to clean snow, while the simulated annual local radiative forcing corresponds to 3 to 4.5 and 10.5 to 13.0 W m-2. An increased sublimation or evaporation of the snow reduces the simulated radiative forcing, leading to a net forcing that is lower by 0.5 to 1.5 W m-2, while the addition of 10 ppm dust causes an increase of the radiative forcing between 2.5 and 3 W m-2. According to the simulations, 7.5 ppm of dust has an effect equivalent to 100 ppb of BC concerning the impact on the melting of the snowpack and the local radiative forcing. © Author(s) 2015. Source

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