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Safonov A.V.,RAS Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry | Tregubova V.E.,RAS Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry | Podzorova E.A.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology
High Energy Chemistry | Year: 2015

The possibility of using an integrated approach to water purification for the removal of petroleum products on the basis of the reagent-free "green chemistry" processes of radiation treatment and biodegradation has been explored. The treatment of water containing diesel fuel, engine oil, and fuel oil has shown that these processes hold much promise. The radiation treatment has led to a twelvefold reduction in COD, with the BOD values increasing with an increase in the radiation dose, thereby suggesting that recalcitrant molecules are decomposed to simpler ones amenable to bio-oxidation. It has been found that the maximum percentage of biodegradation is achieved for the solutions irradiated to maximal doses, although the efficiency of biodegradation increases by more than a factor of 2 after irradiation to 5 kGy because of the destruction of hardly biodegradable compounds. Thus, it has been proposed to increase the petroleum product removal efficiency in water purification by employing the integrated radiation - microbiological process comprising the use of ionizing radiation for the formation of a precipitate and the decomposition of the petroleum products into lighter fragments in the first purification step and subsequently removing the latter from the water by the biological method. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Bannova E.A.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Kitaeva N.K.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry | Year: 2015

Carbonization of peat under the action of microwave radiation was used to produce a microporous carbon material. The effect of the carbonization process parameters on the physicochemical, structural, and adsorption properties of the carbon material was examined. It was shown that the carbonization results in that the content of charged surface areas decreases due to the destruction of functional organic compounds, thee appears porosity, and the adsorption properties of the carbon material are improved. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Bannova E.A.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Kitaeva N.K.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology
Solid Fuel Chemistry | Year: 2015

The physicochemical and adsorptive properties of a carbon sorbent obtained by the microwave carbonization of peat were studied. With the use of IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, it was found that, under the action of microwave radiation, the concentration of functional groups in peat decreased and, as a result, the carbon content of peat increased. It was established that the adsorption activity of the carbon sorbent for iodine considerably increased as a result of carbonization, and that for methylene blue and methanyl yellow decreased. The carbon sorbents obtained by the microwave carbonization of peat had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3/g and a specific surface area of no smaller than 1350 m2/g. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Kitaeva N.K.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Bannova E.A.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry | Year: 2014

Track membranes modified by the irradiation-chemical method with polymethacrylic acid were studied. Grafted chains of polymethacrylic acid were impregnated with silver ions. The optimal parameters and conditions of the post-irradiation grafting of methacrylic acid were determined. The effect of the grafted methacrylic acid on porosimetric and hydrodynamic characteristics of a modified track membrane was studied. Impregnation with silver ions makes it possible to obtain membranes with antimicrobial properties. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Alekseeva M.V.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Askhadullin R.S.,RAS Institute for Physics and Power Engineering | Kitaeva N.K.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Laktionov M.N.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology | Skobeev D.A.,Obninsk Center for Science and Technology
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

The article discusses experimental investigations into obtaining of new heat insulating coating on the basis of microspheres and anisotropic nanostructures, capable to provide operability of equipment at high temperatures. Optimum composition of the heat insulating coating has been determined. The strength of the heat insulating coating is provided by hollow microspheres as binder. Microspheres form supporting frame of heat insulating material, and gas pressure in the microspheres prevents alteration of their shape even at reaching of glass softening point. Heat insulating coatings on the basis of liquid glass binder are characterized with high adhesion to nearly any surface, they are solidified already at ambient temperature, though, total dehydration requires heating to 400°C. In order to improve heat insulating properties of the material it is recommended to select vacuum hollow microspheres or filled with gas (heat conductance lower than that of air). In order to decrease heat conductance of heat insulating coatings the binders should consist of foamed materials on the basis of liquid glass with additive increasing foam expansion ratio of foam agent aqueous solution. The obtained results made it possible to confirm possibility to develop heat insulating coatings of the basis of microspheres. Source

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