Obesity Academy Austria

Salzburg, Austria

Obesity Academy Austria

Salzburg, Austria
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Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Obesity Academy Austria | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,University of Salzburg | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,University of Graz | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitat Salzburg | And 20 more authors.
Padiatrische Praxis | Year: 2011

There is controversy about role of craving and addiction in obesity. We have shown that obese adults fulfill the minimum three criteria of ICD 10 for the diagnosis »addiction«, that they do not differ significantly from either other substance addicts, that BMI groups differ significantly in »addiction to abnormal food intake« and that addiction is a strong predictor of weight loss after surgical and behavioral interventions. Here we attempt to replicate this in children with the help of seven studies. In four cross sectional studies (n = 4428, 2480 resp. 1886, studies 1, 5 and 6), we surveyed 10-16-year old pupils from a representative selection of Austrian schools. We interviewed 160 morbidly obese young patients and their parents (age 10-16), who wanted to participate in therapy trainings sessions (study 7). In two longitudinal studies we evaluated 10-14 year old participants (n = 50, study 2 and n = 67, studies 3 and 4) of interdisciplinary obesity group training. We used the child version of the »Questionnaire on addiction to overeating« (3). Children too fulfill the minimum three criteria of ICD 10 for the diagnosis »addiction«, percentiles differ significantly in »addiction to abnormal food intake«, addiction is a strong predictor of weight regain and weight loss, distinction can be made between addiction to overeating and eating disorders and the subjective burden of feeling addicted is stronger than the burden of being obese. These results prove the relevance of food craving/addiction in childhood. Contemporary studies in neuroscience support these results.

Weghuber D.,Paracelsus Private Medical School | Weghuber D.,Obesity Academy Austria | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Obesity Academy Austria | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Hallein Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal fur Ernahrungsmedizin | Year: 2010

Obesity, which is a chronic illness by definition leads to the discrimination against children and teenagers from early childhood on. It is characterized by a multitude of comorbidities and a high rate of co-existing eating disorders such as addiction to overeating and driven by the sedentary lifestyles in our affluent societies. Prevention can only be successful if it is applied at all levels of society. Therapy and advice must be interdisciplinary, tailored to individual's needs, taking into account associated variables. Advice and therapy work best when pediatricians and therapists make use of upto-date information and communication strategies. The large amount of empirical evidence, based on social psychological theory from economic and political studies relating to advertising and (war-time) propaganda allows to identify pitfalls and solutions. These lessons on how to influence people's perceptions, structures and behavior, can be applied in clinical and medical areas including the management of obesity.

Weghuber D.,Paracelsus Private Medical School | Weghuber D.,Obesity Academy Austria | Miller K.,Obesity Academy Austria | Miller K.,Hallein Hospital | And 12 more authors.
International Journal on Disability and Human Development | Year: 2013

Background: Interdisciplinary state-of-the-art interventions to treat obesity demand equally interdisciplinary outcome assessments. The Bariatric Evaluation Score for Children (BAREV-C) was developed to reliably and comprehensively assess the outcomes of non-surgical and surgical obesity treatment in children and adolescents. Methods: BAREV-C assesses medical, psychological, nutritional, and data of physical fitness data. The body mass index standard deviation score and waist measurement were selected to describe anthropometry. Serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, and plasma glucose tolerance were selected as parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Relevant interdisciplinary variables were tested using the interdisciplinary Adiposity Evaluation kit, which assesses cognitive steering variables of eating and exercise behaviour as well as psychological comorbidities, exercise motivation, nutritional preferences, and quality of life associated with obesity. Physical fitness was assessed by means of the Physical fitness test battery. The values for the BAREV-C were determined in several steps and in all relevant disciplines pre and post intervention. Results: The BAREV-C facilitated the identification and quantification of significant changes of interdisciplinary variables associated with obesity for groups and individuals (tables of critical differences) as well. The degree of success or failure of an intervention can be quantified for each of the disciplines. Conclusions: The BAREV-C is the first comprehensive outcome instrument for pre-post-intervention evaluation of obese individual children as well as groups. It can be applied for intervention studies and can provide the clinician with a differentiated overview in daily practice. © 2013, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.

Ardelt-Gattinger E.,University of Salzburg | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Obesity Academy Austria | Meindl M.,University of Salzburg | Mangge H.,Obesity Academy Austria | And 10 more authors.
Chirurg | Year: 2012

Background: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to reduce weight permanently which is essential to avoid, to improve or even to cure life-threatening comorbidities. Little is known about changes of the psychological etiology and risk factors. Methods: The present study concentrated on psychological variables which are considered to cause or promote obesity. The changes of symptoms were measured by the AD-EVA test inventory. A total of 60 patients (24 male/36 female, age 18-71 years) were tested prior to gastric bypass or gastric banding (body mass index BMI M=44.95, SD=6.91) and postoperatively (BMI M=33.92, SD=7.23). Results: Following surgery the variables addiction (t=11.15, p<0.01) and binge eating disorder (t=2.13, p<0.05) showed significant changes across all patients and therefore confirmed a positive effect but restrained eating and bulimia remained unmodified after surgery. There were significant differences between the two bariatric methods (p<0.01). Discussion: A precise interdisciplinary evaluation is a prerequisite for deciding between gastric banding and the bypass technique as well as to define the need for preoperative and postoperative psychotherapy. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Damon S.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Damon S.,Obesity Academy Austria | Schatzer M.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Hoppichler F.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | And 8 more authors.
Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin | Year: 2011

Nutrition in childhood should not only provide adequate energy and essential nutrients for growth and physical as well as mental health, but also prevent future nutrition related diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular diseases. Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents and a nutritional behavior, within an obesogenic environment, in need of improvement, effective concepts and programs for therapy and prevention are in demand. Certain nutritional guidelines and models have been proven to be therapeutically beneficial. However, extensive multidisciplinary family-based lifestyle programs are required for achieving sustained effects. In order to induce changes in nutritional behavior, numerous parameters such as early programming, learned behaviors, education, and in particular the social and cultural environments need to be taken into consideration. Besides family and environment, schools are important living spaces for children and therefore resemble a valuable setting for preventive projects and health promotion. Various interventions oriented towards nutritional education as well as improving foods offered at schools (as essential precondition for a healthier behavior!) demonstrate that nutritional competences and behavior of students can be positively affected. The body of evidence in regards to effects on weight is still unclear. However, combined, multicomponent nutritional- and exercise oriented interventions, not only geared towards the school environment, but also towards families at an early stage, are more likely to have a sustained effect on preventing overweight. Children from intact families or families of intermediate and high socio-economic status benefit more. Therefore, community based interventions and concepts are necessary for an effective prevention and therapy, which can only be successfully implemented with political support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

Ardelt-Gattinger E.,University of Salzburg | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,Obesity Academy Austria | Ring-Dimitriou S.,University of Salzburg | Hofmann J.,University of Salzburg | And 6 more authors.
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2016

Eating behavior and physical activity behavior are under the control of certain cognitive patterns. 6600 adults and 4400 children/adolescents (8–18 years) were tested with the Obesity Diagnostics and Evaluation System (AD-EVA). Potentially significant gender differences will be detailed for the entire juvenile cohort, the subgroup of obese children/adolescents as compared to the adult cohort in this article. Among all the subscales tested, obese girls primarily showed significantly higher values of (preclinical) eating disorders than boys. These data are relevant for both prevention and health promotion. No significant differences were found in regard to sports motivation. This warrants facilitation of physical activity for both genders. Further, a male predilection for “Snacks” and “High-fat food” that could be found in the total representative study group, could not be verified in the subgroup of obese girls and boys, thus suggesting a similarily unhealthy eating behavior in both genders of juvenility. © 2016, The Author(s).

Hofmann J.,University of Salzburg | Hofmann J.,Paracelsus Medical University | Hofmann J.,Obesity Academy Austria | Ardelt-Gattinger E.,University of Salzburg | And 7 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Methods Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Results Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. Conclusions This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

Hofmann J.,University of Salzburg | Hofmann J.,Paracelsus Medical University | Hofmann J.,Obesity Academy Austria | Meule A.,University of Salzburg | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychology | Year: 2016

Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50) completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods). Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies. © 2016 Hofmann, Meule, Reichenberger, Weghuber, Ardelt-Gattinger and Blechert.

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