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Kumar N.,Thapar University | Chilamkurti N.,obe University | Misra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2015

With the evolution of the Internet and related technologies, there has been an evolution of new paradigm, which is the Internet of Things, IoT. In the IoT, a large number of objects/devices on the Internet are connected to one another for information sharing, irrespective of their locations. These devices may be interconnected with one another using various network protocols and standards to exchange information between them. The underlying network used for information exchange generally has built-in intelligence, which is called ambient intelligence, so that it can make adaptive decisions for information exchange between these objects in theh IoT. This article provides a performance evaluation of the Bayesian coalition game among these objects in the IoT environment by using the concepts of game theory and LA. In comparison to the existing solutions, LA are assumed to be the players in the game having variable learning rates in the coalition game. Most of the existing solutions have considered constant learning rates of the players in the game, which may lead to the possibility of local optima at some points. Each player decides its actions using competitive learning, having variable learning rates, based on the newly defined utility function, which leads to the achievment of a Nash equilibrium in the game quickly. Each player receives feedback from the environment corresponding to the actions taken in a unit interval of time. The performance of the proposed scheme was evaluated with respect to various performance evaluation metrics. The results obtained show that the proposed scheme is useful in the IoT environment. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Kumar N.,University | Iqbal R.,Coventry University | Chilamkurti N.,obe University | James A.,Coventry University
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory | Year: 2011

Over the years, multihop Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are providing cost effective services to the end users such as Video on demand (VoD), Voice over IP (VoIP), and Video conferencing in an efficient manner. Most of these services require an efficient service selection mechanism that can provide Quality of Service (QoS) in presence of various constraints such as delay, jitter, and service availability. In presence of these constraints, multi-constraint QoS aware service selection in WMNs is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose an ant colony based multi constraints QoS aware service selection (QSS) algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, ants are launched from source node. The best path is chosen based upon the defined cost effective (CE) metric in presence of constraints. The constraints are chosen both from network and user perspectives. The goodness of the chosen path is determined by the CE metric. Moreover, ants are not launched randomly from the source node. They are launched based upon the guided search evaluation (GSE) criterion. This criterion is also used if the two paths have the same CE metric. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective than the earlier improved ant colony QoS routing algorithm (IAQR) algorithm with respect to convergence, end-to-end delay (jitter), and service availability. Specifically, the service availability increases by 35-50% in the proposed QoS aware scheme compared to IAQR algorithm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Davis S.,Flinders University | Crothers N.,obe University | Young S.,Monash University | Smith K.,Monash University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2012

Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This research aimed to develop a better understanding of productive ageing in different types of communities in rural Victoria, Australia. An anonymous self-complete postal questionnaire was distributed to a sample of households in twenty rural communities using the Australia Post Unaddressed Select Service. Those householders 50 years of age and older were invited to complete the survey. Data collected allowed examination of social and civic engagement, familiarity with community, the value placed on social relations by people aged 50 years and over, and how community involvement was linked to community sustainability. In particular it attempts to address the question 'Does social and civic engagement differ across declining, stable and growing rural communities?' Despite differences among rural communities, this study showed that older people develop and maintain strong community connections and well-functioning social capital and that participation in social activities was associated with feelings of being connected with community. It also identified health issues and lack of options as the main constraints on participation. A key message for policy makers is that older people play an important role in the sustainability of rural communities. There is much to be gained from actively supporting their participation in activities that are connected to ageing well. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mugyenyi C.K.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Elliott S.R.,Burnet Institute | McCallum F.J.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Anders R.F.,obe University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Antibodies to P. falciparum apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1) may contribute to protective immunity against clinical malaria by inhibiting blood stage growth of P. falciparum, and AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the acquisition of strain-specific and cross-reactive antibodies to AMA1 in humans, or the acquisition of invasion-inhibitory antibodies to AMA1.Methodology/Findings:We examined the acquisition of human antibodies to specific polymorphic invasion-inhibitory and non-inhibitory AMA1 epitopes, defined by the monoclonal antibodies 1F9 and 2C5, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies were measured in cohorts of Kenyan children and adults. Antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope and non-inhibitory 2C5 epitope were measured indirectly by competition ELISA. Antibodies to the 1F9 and 2C5 epitopes were acquired by children and correlated with exposure, and higher antibody levels and prevalence were observed with increasing age and with active P. falciparum infection. Of note, the prevalence of antibodies to the inhibitory 1F9 epitope was lower than antibodies to AMA1 or the 2C5 epitope. Antibodies to AMA1 ectodomain, the 1F9 or 2C5 epitopes, or a combination of responses, showed some association with protection from P. falciparum malaria in a prospective longitudinal study. Furthermore, antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope were positively correlated with parasite growth-inhibitory activity of serum antibodies.Conclusions/Significance:Individuals acquire antibodies to functional, polymorphic epitopes of AMA1 that may contribute to protective immunity, and these findings have implications for AMA1 vaccine development. Measuring antibodies to the 1F9 epitope by competition ELISA may be a valuable approach to assessing human antibodies with invasion-inhibitory activity in studies of acquired immunity and vaccine trials of AMA1. © 2013 Mugyenyi et al. Source

Filipi A.,obe University | Wales R.,obe University
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2010

In this paper we were interested in comparing the organization of the assessment sequences of adults and children (aged 7-12) in the assessment phase of a map task. Using Pomerantz's (1984a) findings for adults in ordinary conversation, we set out to analyze whether the speakers in our corpus produced both a first and second assessment and whether there was a preference for agreement. We found that a first assessment did make a second expectable as a response. However, given that a specific task had been completed (that of following a set of instructions to complete a map) on completion of the task, examination and comparison of the maps also become relevant next actions, thus potentially delaying the second assessment, or making it no longer relevant. The latter organization, in fact, emerged in the children's interactions. In contrast, the majority of the adults produced immediate second assessments. With respect to preference organization, preference was locally determined by the stance that the participants took to the task outcome. However, the adults and older children paid more regard to face matters in attributing blame for inaccurate maps than did the younger children who were more direct in finding fault. Analysis also showed that while the adults produced assessments of the task itself, of the map, or of the performance of the other speaker, the children were more likely to confine their assessments to an assessment of the completed map. © 2010. Source

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