Bendigo, Australia
Bendigo, Australia

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Mugyenyi C.K.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Elliott S.R.,Burnet Institute | McCallum F.J.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Anders R.F.,obe University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Antibodies to P. falciparum apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1) may contribute to protective immunity against clinical malaria by inhibiting blood stage growth of P. falciparum, and AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the acquisition of strain-specific and cross-reactive antibodies to AMA1 in humans, or the acquisition of invasion-inhibitory antibodies to AMA1.Methodology/Findings:We examined the acquisition of human antibodies to specific polymorphic invasion-inhibitory and non-inhibitory AMA1 epitopes, defined by the monoclonal antibodies 1F9 and 2C5, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies were measured in cohorts of Kenyan children and adults. Antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope and non-inhibitory 2C5 epitope were measured indirectly by competition ELISA. Antibodies to the 1F9 and 2C5 epitopes were acquired by children and correlated with exposure, and higher antibody levels and prevalence were observed with increasing age and with active P. falciparum infection. Of note, the prevalence of antibodies to the inhibitory 1F9 epitope was lower than antibodies to AMA1 or the 2C5 epitope. Antibodies to AMA1 ectodomain, the 1F9 or 2C5 epitopes, or a combination of responses, showed some association with protection from P. falciparum malaria in a prospective longitudinal study. Furthermore, antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope were positively correlated with parasite growth-inhibitory activity of serum antibodies.Conclusions/Significance:Individuals acquire antibodies to functional, polymorphic epitopes of AMA1 that may contribute to protective immunity, and these findings have implications for AMA1 vaccine development. Measuring antibodies to the 1F9 epitope by competition ELISA may be a valuable approach to assessing human antibodies with invasion-inhibitory activity in studies of acquired immunity and vaccine trials of AMA1. © 2013 Mugyenyi et al.

Toukhsati S.R.,Monash University | Young E.,University of Ballarat | Bennett P.C.,obe University | Coleman G.J.,Monash University
Anthrozoos | Year: 2012

Cat containment is a prominent cat management issue in Australia that provokes strong, and sometimes opposing, points of view. The aim of this study was to explore beliefs and attitudes towards containment in cat owner and non-owner groups, and to examine cat containment practices in owners. A random sample of 424 Victorian residents was recruited to complete the Community Attitudes towards Companion Animals Survey by telephone interview. The results showed that, of 142 cat owners, 80% contained their cat to a property at night but only 41.2% contained their cat to a property during the day. For cat owners, beliefs about the importance of cat containment were related to concerns regarding the protection of cats from injury and the protection of native wildlife. Beliefs relating to the importance of cat containment most strongly predicted containment practices. Conversely, findings from non-owners revealed that support for containment was generally linked to concerns regarding protection for wildlife and protection of community members from harm or nuisance behaviors. These findings indicate broad support for cat containment and suggest that education relating to the advantages of suitably enriched containment to protect cats from injury would be worthwhile in regions with cat curfews in place. © ISAZ 2012.

Davis S.,Flinders University | Crothers N.,obe University | Grant J.,Bendigo Loddon Primary Care Partnership | Young S.,Monash University | Smith K.,Monash University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2012

Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This research aimed to develop a better understanding of productive ageing in different types of communities in rural Victoria, Australia. An anonymous self-complete postal questionnaire was distributed to a sample of households in twenty rural communities using the Australia Post Unaddressed Select Service. Those householders 50 years of age and older were invited to complete the survey. Data collected allowed examination of social and civic engagement, familiarity with community, the value placed on social relations by people aged 50 years and over, and how community involvement was linked to community sustainability. In particular it attempts to address the question 'Does social and civic engagement differ across declining, stable and growing rural communities?' Despite differences among rural communities, this study showed that older people develop and maintain strong community connections and well-functioning social capital and that participation in social activities was associated with feelings of being connected with community. It also identified health issues and lack of options as the main constraints on participation. A key message for policy makers is that older people play an important role in the sustainability of rural communities. There is much to be gained from actively supporting their participation in activities that are connected to ageing well. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Howell T.J.,Monash University | Conduit R.,Monash University | Toukhsati S.,Monash University | Bennett P.,obe University | Bennett P.,University of Vic
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2012

Dog cognition research tends to rely on behavioural response, which can be confounded by obedience or motivation, as the primary means of indexing dog cognitive abilities. A physiological method of measuring dog cognitive processing would be instructive and could complement behavioural response. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used in humans to study stimulus processing, which results in waveforms called event-related potentials (ERPs). One ERP component, mismatch negativity (MMN), is a negative deflection approximately 160-200ms after stimulus onset, which may be related to change detection from echoic sensory memory. We adapted a minimally invasive technique to record MMN in dogs. Dogs were exposed to an auditory oddball paradigm in which deviant tones (10% probability) were pseudo-randomly interspersed throughout an 8min sequence of standard tones (90% probability). A significant difference in MMN ERP amplitude was observed after the deviant tone in comparison to the standard tone, t 5=-2.98, p=0.03. This difference, attributed to discrimination of an unexpected stimulus in a series of expected stimuli, was not observed when both tones occurred 50% of the time, t 1=-0.82, p>0.05. Dogs showed no evidence of pain or distress at any point. We believe this is the first illustration of MMN in a group of dogs and anticipate that this technique may provide valuable insights in cognitive tasks such as object discrimination. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Dodd K.J.,obe University | Duffy S.,EW Tipping Foundation | Stewart J.A.,Ballarat Health | Impey J.,CGU Workers Compensation | And 2 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effects of an exercise programme on people with severe, chronic schizophrenia. Method. A single-group, pre-post pilot study incorporating a baseline familiarisation phase was followed by a 24-week, small-group aerobic exercise programme for up to 30-min each session, twice a week and a 30-min weekly walking session. Adherence was assessed by attendance, and by analysing the exercise supervisor's comments in a programme diary and in each participant's exercise logbook. Body weight, cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2 max), walking endurance (6-min walk test) and psychiatric symptoms (the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) were measured at each time point. Results. Eight participants (6 men, 2 women; mean age 45 years, 9 months (SD 10 years, 1 month); mean body mass index 27.0 (SD 4.2)) attended a mean of 73% of the scheduled exercise sessions, and 83% of the walking sessions, with no adverse events and no dropouts. All participants displayed positive and negative behaviours during training sessions. There were significant reductions in weight (2.4%) and body mass index (2.2%), but no changes in other measures. Conclusions. It was feasible and safe to conduct a small-group aerobic exercise programme for adults with severe chronic schizophrenia that reduced body weight. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Kumar N.,Thapar University | Chilamkurti N.,obe University | Misra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2015

With the evolution of the Internet and related technologies, there has been an evolution of new paradigm, which is the Internet of Things, IoT. In the IoT, a large number of objects/devices on the Internet are connected to one another for information sharing, irrespective of their locations. These devices may be interconnected with one another using various network protocols and standards to exchange information between them. The underlying network used for information exchange generally has built-in intelligence, which is called ambient intelligence, so that it can make adaptive decisions for information exchange between these objects in theh IoT. This article provides a performance evaluation of the Bayesian coalition game among these objects in the IoT environment by using the concepts of game theory and LA. In comparison to the existing solutions, LA are assumed to be the players in the game having variable learning rates in the coalition game. Most of the existing solutions have considered constant learning rates of the players in the game, which may lead to the possibility of local optima at some points. Each player decides its actions using competitive learning, having variable learning rates, based on the newly defined utility function, which leads to the achievment of a Nash equilibrium in the game quickly. Each player receives feedback from the environment corresponding to the actions taken in a unit interval of time. The performance of the proposed scheme was evaluated with respect to various performance evaluation metrics. The results obtained show that the proposed scheme is useful in the IoT environment. © 2015 IEEE.

Kumar N.,SMVD University | Iqbal R.,Coventry University | Chilamkurti N.,obe University | James A.,Coventry University
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory | Year: 2011

Over the years, multihop Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are providing cost effective services to the end users such as Video on demand (VoD), Voice over IP (VoIP), and Video conferencing in an efficient manner. Most of these services require an efficient service selection mechanism that can provide Quality of Service (QoS) in presence of various constraints such as delay, jitter, and service availability. In presence of these constraints, multi-constraint QoS aware service selection in WMNs is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose an ant colony based multi constraints QoS aware service selection (QSS) algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, ants are launched from source node. The best path is chosen based upon the defined cost effective (CE) metric in presence of constraints. The constraints are chosen both from network and user perspectives. The goodness of the chosen path is determined by the CE metric. Moreover, ants are not launched randomly from the source node. They are launched based upon the guided search evaluation (GSE) criterion. This criterion is also used if the two paths have the same CE metric. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective than the earlier improved ant colony QoS routing algorithm (IAQR) algorithm with respect to convergence, end-to-end delay (jitter), and service availability. Specifically, the service availability increases by 35-50% in the proposed QoS aware scheme compared to IAQR algorithm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Filipi A.,obe University | Wales R.,obe University
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2010

In this paper we were interested in comparing the organization of the assessment sequences of adults and children (aged 7-12) in the assessment phase of a map task. Using Pomerantz's (1984a) findings for adults in ordinary conversation, we set out to analyze whether the speakers in our corpus produced both a first and second assessment and whether there was a preference for agreement. We found that a first assessment did make a second expectable as a response. However, given that a specific task had been completed (that of following a set of instructions to complete a map) on completion of the task, examination and comparison of the maps also become relevant next actions, thus potentially delaying the second assessment, or making it no longer relevant. The latter organization, in fact, emerged in the children's interactions. In contrast, the majority of the adults produced immediate second assessments. With respect to preference organization, preference was locally determined by the stance that the participants took to the task outcome. However, the adults and older children paid more regard to face matters in attributing blame for inaccurate maps than did the younger children who were more direct in finding fault. Analysis also showed that while the adults produced assessments of the task itself, of the map, or of the performance of the other speaker, the children were more likely to confine their assessments to an assessment of the completed map. © 2010.

Turnbull J.,obe University
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2012

This paper presents an overview of Geographical Information System (GIS) applications currently being utilized in an historical archaeology research project supported by La Trobe University. This work is the first stage of a broader study titled "Cultural Landscapes of Colonial Water Management in Victoria's Central Highlands", funded by the Australian Research Council (DP110100437). The current area of focus is immediately south east of Creswick. The project incorporates a variety of GIS applications in order to understand the spatial and temporal relationships between water management features such as water races, dams and reservoirs utilized on the 19th century Creswick goldfields. MapInfo software has been utilized to integrate various GIS applications and technologies, such as geo-referenced historical maps, 3D visualization, temporal mapping and integration with Google Earth, Google Maps, and IPAD. This paper introduces the reader to Historical GIS and discusses some limitations encountered thus far concluding that GIS has been integral to understanding this complex historical landscape and the complex relationships between water users.

Mathai M.L.,Health Science University | Chen N.,obe University | Cornall L.,Health Science University | Weisinger R.S.,obe University
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2011

Obesity is associated with increased body fat composition and elevated risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The activity of the renin-angiotensin system is generally increased in obesity and experimental evidence has shown that angiotensin influences appetite and metabolism as well as mechanisms that induce adipose tissue growth and metabolism in peripheral organs. This review summarises some of the key evidence from animal and human experiments that links the renin-angiotensin system to obesity and metabolic disease. This research has been greatly aided by the continuing development of new pharmaceuticals that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. While their primary use is in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, a range of experimental and clinical evidence indicates their potential use in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

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