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D'Amore V.,IRCCS | Santolini I.,IRCCS | Celli R.,IRCCS | Lionetto L.,St. Andrea Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Acute treatment with positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGlu1 and mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (RO0711401 and VU0360172, respectively) reduces the incidence of spike-and wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. However, from the therapeutic standpoint, it was important to establish whether tolerance developed to the action of these drugs. We administered either VU0360172 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) or RO0711401 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to WAG/Rij rats twice daily for ten days. VU0360172 maintained its activity during the treatment, whereas rats developed tolerance to RO0711401 since the 3rd day of treatment and were still refractory to the drug two days after treatment withdrawal. In response to VU0360172, expression of mGlu5 receptors increased in the thalamus of WAG/Rij rats after 1 day of treatment, and remained elevated afterwards. VU0360172 also enhanced mGlu5 receptor expression in the cortex after 8 days of treatment without changing the expression of mGlu1a receptors. Treatment with RO0711401 enhanced the expression of both mGlu1a and mGlu5 receptors in the thalamus and cortex of WAG/Rij rats after 3-8 days of treatment. These data were different from those obtained in non-epileptic rats, in which repeated injections of RO0711401 and VU0360172 down-regulated the expression of mGlu1a and mGlu5 receptors. Levels of VU0360172 in the thalamus and cortex remained unaltered during the treatment, whereas levels of RO0711401 were reduced in the cortex at day 8 of treatment. These findings suggest that mGlu5 receptor PAMs are potential candidates for the treatment of absence epilepsy in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Malaguarnera M.,University of Catania | Motta M.,University of Catania | Vacante M.,University of Catania | Malaguarnera G.,University of Catania | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Translational Research | Year: 2015

Chronic hepatitis C is both a virologic and a fibrotic disease, with mortality resulting mainly from the complications of cirrhosis and HCC. The aim was to evaluate the impact on of supplementation with a new pharmaceutical complex of silybinvitamin E-phospholipids in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin. In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 32 subjects with chronic hepatitis, received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week) plus Ribavirin and placebo, while 32 subjects received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b plus Ribavirin plus association of Silybin 47 mg + vitamin E 15 mg + phospholipids 97 mg in two pill for 12 months. Serum levels of the following markers of liver fibrosis were evaluated: transforming growth factor beta, hyaluronic acid, metalloproteinase 2, amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III procollagen, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type I. The comparison between group A and group B showed a significant difference in ALT (P<0.001), and viremia (P<0.05) after 12 months; in TGF beta levels after 12 months and at follow up (P<0.05); in MMP-2 after 6 months (P<0.05); in PIIINP after 6, 12 months and at follow up (P<0.05); in TIMP-1 after 6, 12 months and at follow up (P<0.001). In conclusion, the supplementation with silybin-vitamin E-phosholipids complex ameliorated the response to Peg-IFN plus RBV treatment and reduced serum levels of markers of liver fibrosis. The ameliorative effect of the complex maybe related to a direct effect on the activation of hepatic stellate cells, or mediated via antioxidants. © 2015, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights Reserved. Source

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