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Ivanov Y.F.,Institute of High Current Electronics | Gromov V.E.,Siberian State Industrial University | Peregudov O.A.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Morozov K.V.,OAO EVRAZ Obedinennyi Zapadno Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat | Yur'ev A.B.,OAO EVRAZ Obedinennyi Zapadno Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat
Steel in Translation | Year: 2015

The transformation of the structural and phase states and defect substructure of the surface layer (depth up to 10 mm) in rails during prolonged operation (with a total load amounting to 1000 million t) is analyzed on the basis of metal physics. The microhardness is plotted, and decrease in strength of the rail’s contact surface after prolonged operation is noted. In rail operation, a multilayer structure is formed. The surface layer (about 20 μm) has a multiphase submicrocrystalline and nanocrystalline structure; it contains micropores and microcracks. The structure at a distance of 2 mm from the contact surface is morphologically similar to the steel structure before operation: it consists primarily of pearlite grains (mainly plates), mixed ferrite-carbide grains, and structure-free ferrite grains. The density of the flexural extinction contours increases at a distance of 2 mm from the contact surface. The amplitude of the stress field is greatest at the phase boundary between a globular particle and the matrix. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Grishunin V.A.,Siberian State Industrial University | Gromov V.E.,Siberian State Industrial University | Ivanov Y.F.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Volkov K.V.,OAO EVRAZ Obedinennyi Zapadno Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat | Konovalov S.V.,Siberian State Industrial University
Steel in Translation | Year: 2013

Transmission electron microscopy permits quantitative analysis of how the phase composition and defect substructure in the surface layer of rail steel consisting of plate pearlite and martensite nanozones evolve under fatigue. The fatigue failure of rail steel with different structures is discussed. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Bazegskiy A.E.,OAO EVRAZ Obedinennyi Zapadno Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat | Shkoller M.B.,Siberian State Industrial University | Kazimirov S.A.,Siberian State Industrial University
Coke and Chemistry | Year: 2015

The interaction of GZh + Zh coal concentrate with the anthracene fraction of coking tar is investigated. On that basis, a production technology for materials used in the manufacture of special carbon materials (needle coke, carbon fibers, etc.) has been developed, on the basis of the thermal solution of coking coal. By means of thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray structural analysis, as well as plastometric analysis, it is shown that the pyrolysis of coal is significantly affected by adding 5% of the anthracene fraction, on account of its hydrogen-donor activity. In particular, the quantity and fluidity of the plastic mass are increased; coke formation is shifted to high temperatures (>700°C); and the structure of the solid residue is improved. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Bazaikin V.I.,Siberian State Industrial University | Temlyantsev M.V.,Siberian State Industrial University | Bobrov B.Y.,OAO EVRAZ Obedinennyi Zapadno Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat
Steel in Translation | Year: 2015

A model is proposed for the hot extension of small-diameter cylindrical steel blanks in complex faces to obtain round forgings. Plane deformation is considered. The stress state is calculated on the basis of the Michell problem for an elastic wedge, the Flamant problem for a semiinfinite plate, and a method proposed earlier for assessing the transition of a blank to the plastic state on extension in plane faces. The thermal stress is disregarded; the elastic modulus of the blank depends on the temperature. The distribution of elastic stress tensors in the blank due to the action of three point forces is determined. The total stress field is established; it depends on the vertex angle in the V-shaped lower face. The stress in the plastic-flow zone within the blank’s cross section is estimated, on the basis of the limiting effective elastic stress tensor due to the action of three point forces. As an example, the extension of a steel 45 blank is considered. The limiting effective elastic strain ɛel is assumed to be the elastic limit ɛ0.2 = 0.002. On the assumption that the elastic modulus of steel 45 is 100 GPa at 950°C, the load coefficient when part of the blank passes to the plastic state is determined. The distribution of the components of the total stress tensor is also established. The effective stress corresponding to transition to the plastic state determines the boundary of the plastic zone. The corresponding graphs are plotted. The influence of the vertex angle in the V-shaped lower face on the distribution of the stress-tensor components is established. The optimal value is 120°. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source

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