Wilson D.C.,Imperial College London |
Parker D.,Oakdene Hollins |
Cox J.,Brook Lyndhurst |
Strange K.,Resource Recovery Forum |
And 3 more authors.
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2012
Waste prevention is a policy priority in many countries. For example, European Union member states are currently required to prepare a national Waste Prevention Programme. This article reports on a major international review of the evidence base for business waste prevention to underpin such policy-making. A strict definition of waste prevention is used, including waste avoidance, waste reduction at source or in process, and product reuse-recycling is outside the scope of this article. The review was organised with two key dimensions. Eight types of policy intervention were identified: standards, labelling, procurement, commitments and voluntary agreements, communication, incentives, waste minimisation clubs and other business support. Six illustrative sectors were selected: construction and demolition, food and drink, hospitality, retail, automotive and office-based services. Four broad approaches to business waste prevention have been distinguished and used as part of the analytical framework, classified into a two by two matrix, using supply- and demand-side drivers as one axis, and incremental versus radical change as the other. A fundamental focus was on attitudes and behaviours. A conceptual framework is presented to navigate the various behavioural influences on businesses, and to discuss those motivations and barriers for which the evidence is relatively robust. The results suggest that the (financial) benefits to business of waste prevention are potentially huge, and that some progress is being made, but measurement is a challenge. A taster of some of the learnings on the effectiveness of the different policy interventions to promote waste prevention is also presented. © The Author(s) 2012.
Phillips P.S.,University of Northampton |
Parker D.,Oakdene Hollins |
Sengstschmid H.,Oakdene Hollins |
Fandrich V.,Systain Consulting GmbH
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management | Year: 2012
The Business Waste Prevention Evidence Review (Project WR1403) is a major Government funded project, in England, to map and collate available evidence on business waste prevention so as to guide future policy development. The total number of reports and documents reviewed was 971. The prime focus of research was the UK with 306 reports, but around one third of the reports (142) were sourced from outside the UK including USA, Germany, France, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Finland as well as OECD and pan-European communities. Some 6 illustrative ̀sectors̀ were chosen for review and 8 types of interventions were examined. Cen-tral interventions include attitudes and behaviour in business and interventions by external fun-ders as well as approaches taken to waste prevention. The Review has made clear what is known about the success factors for business waste prevention. Despite over 15 years of activ-ity in England in business support for waste prevention, often through Resource Efficiency Clubs (RECs), there are still large gaps in knowledge, about barriers and success factors that require detailed research in areas such as RECs and business support. The Review occurred, in a period of financial constraint and there is a clear need to rationalise business support, via Best Practice Programmes, essentially for cost savings. The funding support for key Best Prac-tice Programmes has been reduced by over 80% and not replaced with anything comparable in scope and size. This is at a time when very significant potential financial savings, from no or low cost resource efficiency actions in businesses, have been made apparent; being up to 55 billion per annum. This Review provides the evidence base required to stimulate new and dy-namic approaches to funding business support for waste prevention so as to move towards achieving a high proportion of the potential savings.
Waugh R.,Oakdene Hollins
Ironmaking and Steelmaking | Year: 2016
This paper explores the underlying drivers of steel production to predict the fate of the blast furnace as a steelmaking route. Steel production is driven by demand for stocks of steel products and increases in steel stocks are driven by population growth and economic development. However, per-capita steel stocks are expected to saturate with economic development leading to the long-term saturation of steel demand. Combined with an increase in the availability of end-of-life scrap, this suggests that the electric arc furnace route will be increasingly dominant. Furthermore, with an increasingly resource and carbon constrained world, material efficiency strategies will be required to provide the same services with less liquid steel. These factors may usher in the end of the blast furnace era within the next 50 years. This paper is based on research undertaken as part of the WellMet2050 project, and was delivered at the Cleveland Institution of Engineers debate in December 2014. © 2016 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.