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Lourenco L.,British Columbia Center for Excellence in | Lima V.D.,British Columbia Center for Excellence in | Lima V.D.,University of British Columbia | Heath K.,British Columbia Center for Excellence in | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Background: In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all 5 regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of 8 criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results: A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: 1 for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions: We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Emery J.,University of Ottawa | Pick N.,Oak Tree Clinic | Mills E.J.,University of Ottawa | Cooper C.L.,University of Ottawa
Patient Preference and Adherence

Objective: The influence of biological sex on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretro-viral treatment outcome is not well described in HIV-hepatitis C (HCV) coinfection. Methods: We assessed patients' clinical outcomes of HIV-HCV coinfected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy attending the Ottawa Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic from January 1996 to June 2008. Results: We assessed 144 males and 39 females. Although similar in most baseline characteristics, the CD4 count was higher in females (375 vs 290 cells/μL). Fewer females initiated ritonavir-boosted regimens. The median duration on therapy before interruption or change was longer in males (10 versus 4 months) (odds ratio [OR] 1.40 95% confidence interval: 0.95-2.04; P = 0.09). HIV RNA suppression was frequent (74%) and mean CD4 count achieved robust (over 400 cells/μL) at 6 months, irrespective of sex. The primary reasons for therapy interruption in females and males included: gastrointestinal intolerance (25% vs 19%; P = 0.42); poor adherence (22% vs 15%; P = 0.31); neuropsychiatric symptoms (19% vs 5%; P = 0.003); and lost to follow-up (3% vs 13%; P = 0.08). Seven males (5%) and no females discontinued therapy for liver-specific complications. Death rate was higher in females (23% vs 7%; P = 0.003). Conclusion: There are subtle differences in the characteristics of female and male HIV-HCV coinfected patients that influence HIV treatment decisions. The reasons for treatment interruption and change differ by biological sex. This knowledge should be considered when starting HIV therapy and in efforts to improve treatment outcomes. © 2010 Emery et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Granger-Brown A.,Regional Treatment Center | Buxton J.A.,Regional Treatment Center | Buxton J.A.,University of British Columbia | Condello L.-L.,Nicola Valley Institute of Technology | And 8 more authors.
British Columbia Medical Journal

Several recent collabora - tions between correctional facilities and community health organizations and community education organizations have enabled incarcerated wo - men to access health and education programs that are also available in the community. In addition, health educational programs initiated by incarcerated women themselves illustrate that incarceration provides opportunities to engage hard-to-reach women in health and educational community-based programs with potential long-term healing benefits. Source

Saeed S.,McGill University | Strumpf E.C.,McGill University | Walmsley S.L.,A+ Network | Walmsley S.L.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Background. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been described as revolutionary. However, it remains uncertain how effective these drugs will be for individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV. Bridging this gap between efficacy and effectiveness requires a focus on the generalizability of clinical trials. Methods. Generalizability of DAA trials was assessed by applying the eligibility criteria from 5 efficacy trials: NCT01479868, PHOTON-1 (NCT01667731), TURQUOISE-I (NCT01939197), ION-4 (NCT02073656), and ALLY-2 (NCT02032888) that evaluated simeprevir; sofosbuvir; ombitasvir, paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir; sofosbuvir/ledipasvir; and daclatasvir/sofosbuvir, respectively, to the Canadian Coinfection Cohort, representing approximately 23% of the total coinfected population in care in Canada. Results. Of 874 active participants, 70% had chronic HCV, of whom 410, 26, 94, and 11 had genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. After applying trial eligibility criteria, only 5.9% (24/410) would have been eligible for enrollment in the simeprevir trial, 9.8% (52/530) in PHOTON-1, 6.3% (26/410) in TURQUOISE-I, and 8.1% (34/421) in ION-4. The ALLY-2 study was more inclusive; 43% (233/541) of the cohort would have been eligible. The most exclusive eligibility criteria across all trials with the exception of ALLY-2 were restriction to specific antiretroviral therapies (63%-79%) and active illicit drug use (53%-55%). Conclusions. DAA trial results may have limited generalizability, since the majority of coinfected individuals were not eligible to participate. Exclusions appeared to be related to improving treatment outcomes by not including those at higher risk of poor adherence and reinfection - individuals for whom real-world data are urgently needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

Murray M.C.M.,University of British Columbia | Murray M.C.M.,Womens Health Research Institute | O'Shaughnessy S.,Oak Tree Clinic | Smillie K.,British Columbia Center for Disease Control | And 17 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior

Though evidence shows that Mobile health (mHealth) interventions can improve adherence and viral load in HIV-positive persons, few have studied the health care providers’ (HCP) perspective. We conducted a prospective mixed methods pilot study using the WelTel intervention wherein HIV-positive participants (n = 25) received weekly interactive text messages for 6 months. Text message response rate and topic data were collected to illustrate the HCP experience. The aim of this study is to explore intervention acceptability and feasibility from the HCP perspective through a baseline focus group and end of study interviews with HCP impacted by the intervention. Interview data were thematically coded using the Technology Acceptance Model. HCPs identified that the WelTel intervention engaged patients in building relationships, while organizing and streamlining existing mHealth efforts and dealing with privacy issues. HCPs recognized that although workload would augment initially, intervention benefits were many, and went beyond simply improving HIV viral load. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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