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Upadhyayula V.K.K.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and biothreat pathogens through any of the four sensory means mentioned previously. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Culp L.,CDC Public Health Law Program | Caucci L.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Recent large clinical trials have found that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduced HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), but efforts to provide clinical care to minors, including young MSM, may be complicated by a lack of clarity regarding parental consent requirements with respect to medical services. Purpose: The goal of this paper was to analyze law related to a minor's ability to consent to medical care, including HIV diagnostic testing and treatment, and its implications for PrEP. Methods: Analysis was performed in 2012 on laws current as of December 31, 2011. Public Health Law Program staff collected all statutes and regulations pertaining to an adolescent's ability to consent to HIV diagnostic testing and treatment and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostic testing, treatment, and prevention. Results: No state expressly prohibits minors' access to PrEP or other HIV prevention methods. All jurisdictions expressly allow some minors to consent to medical care for the diagnosis or treatment of STIs, but only eight jurisdictions allow consent to preventive or prophylactic services. Thirty-four states either expressly allow minors to consent to HIV services or allow consent to STI or communicable disease services and classify HIV as an STI or communicable disease. Seventeen jurisdictions allow minors to consent to STI testing and treatment, but they do not have an express HIV provision nor classify HIV as an STI or communicable disease. Conclusions: Minors' access to PrEP without parental consent is unclear, and further analysis is needed to evaluate how state law may relate to the provision of clinical interventions for the prevention of HIV infection. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source


Binet R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Deer D.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Uhlfelder S.J.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Faster detection of contaminated foods can prevent adulterated foods from being consumed and minimize the risk of an outbreak of foodborne illness. A sensitive molecular detection method is especially important for Shigella because ingestion of as few as 10 of these bacterial pathogens can cause disease. The objectives of this study were to compare the ability of four DNA extraction methods to detect Shigella in six types of produce, post-enrichment, and to evaluate a new and rapid conventional multiplex assay that targets the Shigella ipaH, virB and mxiC virulence genes. This assay can detect less than two Shigella cells in pure culture, even when the pathogen is mixed with background microflora, and it can also differentiate natural Shigella strains from a control strain and eliminate false positive results due to accidental laboratory contamination. The four DNA extraction methods (boiling, PrepMan Ultra [Applied Biosystems], InstaGene Matrix [Bio-Rad], DNeasy Tissue kit [Qiagen]) detected 1.6×103Shigella CFU/ml post-enrichment, requiring ~18 doublings to one cell in 25g of produce pre-enrichment. Lower sensitivity was obtained, depending on produce type and extraction method. The InstaGene Matrix was the most consistent and sensitive and the multiplex assay accurately detected Shigella in less than 90min, outperforming, to the best of our knowledge, molecular assays currently in place for this pathogen. © 2014. Source


Oraka E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Oraka E.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | King M.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Callahan D.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Chest | Year: 2010

Background: For millions of adults, effective control of asthma requires a regimen of care that may be compromised by psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression. This study estimated the prevalence and risk factors for serious psychological distress (SPD) and explored their relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adults with asthma in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from 186,738 adult respondents from the 2001-2007 US National Health Interview Survey. We calculated weighted average prevalence estimates of current asthma and SPD by demographic characteristics and health-related factors. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios for factors that may have predicted asthma, SPD, and HRQOL. Results: From 2001 to 2007, the average annual prevalence of current asthma was 7.0% and the average prevalence of SPD was 3.0%. Among adults with asthma, the prevalence of SPD was 7.5% (95% CI, 7.0%-8.1%). A negative association between HRQOL and SPD was found for all adults, independent of asthma status. A similar pattern of risk factors predicted SPD and the co-occurrence of SPD and asthma, although adults with asthma who reported lower socioeconomic status, a history of smoking or alcohol use, and more comorbid chronic conditions had significantly higher odds of SPD. Conclusion: This research suggests the importance of mental health screening for persons with asthma and the need for clinical and community-based interventions to target modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to psychological distress and make asthma worse. © 2010 American College of Chest Physicians. Source


Meyer D.E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Upadhyayula V.K.K.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2014

Nanotechnology is a broad-impact technology with applications ranging from materials and electronics to analytical methods and metrology. The many benefits that can be realized through the utilization of nanotechnology are intended to lead to an improved quality of life. However, numerous concerns have been expressed regarding the unchecked growth of nanotechnology and the unforeseen consequences it may bring. To address the concerns, nanotechnology must be examined under the microscope of sustainability. This work applies the life cycle perspective to provide an understanding of the challenges facing the development of sustainable nanotechnology. A discussion of the holistic tools used to assess the components of sustainability serves as the basis to examine how a harmony between policy and product development can be maintained using decision making for sustainability. This harmony will be most readily achieved using an enhanced risk management strategy for sustainability that combines sustainability assessment with sustainable chemical design. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2013. Source

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