Burton A.S.,Oak Ridge Associated Universities |
Stern J.C.,NASA |
Elsila J.E.,NASA |
Glavin D.P.,NASA |
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 50 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origin(s) of life on Earth were aided by extraterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial review focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally, we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return missions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source
Savage S.L.,Oak Ridge Associated Universities |
McKenzie D.E.,Montana State University |
Reeves K.K.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012
Following the eruption of a filament from a flaring active region, sunward-flowing voids are often seen above developing post-eruption arcades. First discovered using the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh, these supra-arcade downflows (SADs) are now an expected observation of extreme ultra-violet and soft X-ray coronal imagers and spectrographs (e.g, TRACE, SOHO/SUMER, Hinode/XRT, SDO/AIA). Observations made prior to the operation of AIA suggested that these plasma voids (which are seen in contrast to bright, high-temperature plasma associated with current sheets) are the cross-sections of evacuated flux tubes retracting from reconnection sites high in the corona. The high temperature imaging afforded by AIA's 131, 94, and 193 channels coupled with the fast temporal cadence allows for unprecedented scrutiny of the voids. For a flare occurring on 2011 October 22, we provide evidence suggesting that SADs, instead of being the cross-sections of relatively large, evacuated flux tubes, are actually wakes (i.e., trailing regions of low density) created by the retraction of much thinner tubes. This re-interpretation is a significant shift in the fundamental understanding of SADs, as the features once thought to be identifiable as the shrinking loops themselves now appear to be "side effects" of the passage of the loops through the supra-arcade plasma. In light of the fact that previous measurements have attributed to the shrinking loops characteristics that may instead belong to their wakes, we discuss the implications of this new interpretation on previous parameter estimations and on reconnection theory. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CCF | Award Amount: 41.00K | Year: 2016
Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. (ORAU) requests National Science Foundation (NSF) support for selection and attendance of US graduate students and postdoctoral researchers to attend the Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF) in 2016. The Heidelberg Laureate Forum takes place annually in Heidelberg, Germany, and brings 200 young researchers in the computer and mathematical sciences together from all over the world with a group of typically 30 laureates of the Abel Prize, Fields Medal, Turing Award, and Nevanlinna Prize, and is patterned after the Lindau Meeting of Nobel Laureates in the physical sciences. The ORAU has formalized a partnership with the HLF to organize a U.S. delegation for participation in the meetings. This proposal requests support for a total of 9 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in computer science.
The ORAU proposes to support this program by promoting and advertising the opportunity; recruiting from and selecting a diverse pool of applicants; developing and maintaining a program Web site for recruiting, selecting, information and dissemination; coordinating travel and orientation activities for participants, and conducting a follow-up survey to document the programs impact.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CATALYSIS AND BIOCATALYSIS | Award Amount: 106.60K | Year: 2015
This grant funds a workshop to bring together Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) researchers supported by NSFs Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program and those supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). As NSFs response to the Presidents Materials Genome Initiative, DMREF seeks to foster tight collaborations between materials researchers in experiment, theory, and computation. These collaborations are founded on highly iterative feedback loops in which experimental results directly inform theory and computation, and vice versa, with the goal of accelerating the discovery and development of new materials. The workshop provides researchers a forum to share their research results and discuss cross-cutting topics related to establishing and sustaining research collaborations, managing digital data, and supporting long-term simulation software development.
Researchers that are participating in Material Genome Initiative projects provide leadership to the broader materials research community by implementing strategies to achieve the goals set out by this Initiative, including reducing both the cost and time it takes to bring a new material to market. The workshop addresses both successes and challenges faced at the early stages of research, particularly for highly collaborative projects, and helps solidify newly-formed collaborations. Overarching themes identified through presentations, break-out sessions, and discussions are presented in a report for dissemination to the broader materials research community. MGI projects are developing tools that are made available to aid research of the larger community and this workshop presents the most effective ways to implement this task. The workshop, which will be held in the Arlington, Virginia area on January 11-12, 2016, follows in a series of successful workshops, the latest being held in Bethesda, Maryland January 12-13, 2015.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM | Award Amount: 37.55K | Year: 2016
This award provides travel funds for U.S. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers to attend the 4th Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF) in Heidelberg, Germany from September 18-23, 2016. The HLF brings together Laureates of the most prestigious awards in mathematics and computer science (the Abel Prize, the Fields Medal, the Turing Award, and the Rolf Nevanlinna Prize) to spend a week interacting with 200 early career researchers. In addition to the scientific exchanges with the Laureates and each other, participants at the Forum gain a valuable global perspective on computer and mathematical sciences. Modeled on the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, the HLF provides graduate students and postdoctoral researchers with extraordinary access to a group of scientific role models through lectures, small group discussions, and casual conversations. Such experiences can have a profound impact on the development of an early career researcher. For more information about the Forum, please see www.heidelberg-laureate-forum.org
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) will recruit a highly qualified and diverse applicant pool for the Forum. There are many exceptionally promising early career researchers who have little or no opportunity to interact with the Laureates of the major prizes in the computer and mathematical sciences. The HLF is a unique opportunity for these individuals, one that can energize and steer future research. The recruitment and selection of participants will emphasize the potential benefits of the opportunity for the researchers, as well as the overall goal of ensuring a broadly inclusive group of participants. ORAU will provide logistical support both prior to and during the forum and also continue to perform an assessment of participant experiences to document the impact of the Forum. For more information, please see www.orau.org/hlf