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Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Bayram S.,NYU Abu Dhabi | Sencar H.T.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Memon N.,New York University
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security | Year: 2012

It is now established that photo-response nonuniformity noise pattern can be reliably used as a fingerprint to identify an image sensor. The large size and random nature of sensor fingerprints, however, make them inconvenient to store. Further, associated fingerprint matching method can be computationally expensive, especially for applications that involve large-scale databases. To address these limitations, we propose to represent sensor fingerprints in binary-quantized form. It is shown through both analytical study and simulations that the reduction in matching accuracy due to quantization is insignificant as compared to conventional approaches. Experiments on actual sensor fingerprint data are conducted to confirm that only a slight increase occurred in the probability of error and to demonstrate the computational efficacy of the approach. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Bayram S.,NYU Abu Dhabi | Sencar H.T.,NYU Abu Dhabi | Sencar H.T.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Memon N.D.,New York University
2013 IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, MMSP 2013 | Year: 2013

As image source attribution techniques have become significantly sophisticated and are now becoming commonplace, there is a growing need for capabilities to anonymize images and videos. Focusing on the photo response non-uniformity noise pattern based sensor fingerprinting technique, this work evaluates the effectiveness of well-established seam carving method to defend against sensor fingerprint matching. We consider ways in which seam-carving based anonymization can be countered and propose enhancements over conventional seam carving method. Our results show that applying geometrical distortion in addition to seam carving will make counter attack very ineffective both in terms of computational complexity and accuracy. © 2013 IEEE. Source


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/biology-news/

Now, researchers at NYU Abu Dhabi have developed a map of genetic changes across the genome of date palms. They have also established genetic differences between Middle Eastern and North African date palms, an important discovery that sheds light on that long elusive question. In a new paper published in Nature Communications, researchers at the Center for Genomics and Systems Biology at NYUAD have identified more than 7 million mutations or nucleotide polymorphisms that are found between date palm varieties. They have also identified genes that may be important in fruit ripening, fruit color and disease resistance in dates. The study also offers two possible explanations for the crop's origin. One suggests that contemporary date palms descend from two distinct domestication events—an early event in the Middle East, and a later one in North Africa. A second hypothesis proposes that date palms were first cultivated in the Middle East and later spread to North Africa, but somewhere along the way North African dates were crossed with a wild predecessor. The research is part of the 100 Dates! genome sequencing project led by Dorothy Schiff Professor of Genomics Michael Purugganan. The project's goal is to learn more about the traits and evolution of the date palm through analysis of the plant's genome. "The data on diversity in the genomes helps us to identify genes that may help develop better date palms," said Purugganan, who is also a professor of biology. "It also tells us how date palms evolve, and provides clues as to where date palms came from." Evidence from archeological digs suggest that the origin of domesticated dates is in the Gulf. Seeds have been found on Dalma Island, Abu Dhabi that are more than 7,000 years old. Cultivated dates seem to appear about 3,000 years later in North Africa, according to excavation of ancient sites. The team analyzed the genome of 62 varieties of date palm from 12 countries. Seventeen samples came from North Africa; 36 inhabit the Middle East; nine are native to South Asia. The work was a collaboration between NYUAD and UAE University, as well as other researchers in Dubai, Iraq, US, Syria, Tunisia, Pakistan and Qatar. The wild ancestor of the date palm is elusive, but identifying one would provide scientists with valuable information. Khaled Hazzouri, senior research scientist at NYUAD and lead author on the paper, entitled Whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yield insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop, says: "It is important to know the identity and geographic origin of the wild progenitor of a domesticated species because it will help us understand the evolutionary process underlying domestication and the nature of the genetic changes underlying domestication." Purugganan, Hazzouri, and the team also discovered a genetic mutation that causes the trees to produce either yellow or red fruit. Interestingly, the date palm shares this genetic mutation with its very distant cousin, the oil palm. These two plants are separated by approximately 60 million years of evolution, so it's surprising that genes in both species would code for the same trait. "This similarity tells us that evolution uses the same genes in different species to get the same result," Purugganan said. It's possible that information like this could be used by plant breeders to engineer date varieties that have particular traits. For example, since some varieties of date palms can live on water with high salinity, farmers who grow crops in arid terrain could plant date palm varieties suitable for that type of climate. The 100 Dates! project is still in its first phase, and there is considerable research yet to be done. The next phase will include obtaining more samples and mapping important genes, and future research will include collaborations with researchers at UAE University in Al Ain and the University of Baghdad.


Cox L.M.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Yamanishi S.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Sohn J.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Alekseyenko A.V.,NYU Langone Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota begins at birth, and a stable microbial community develops from a succession of key organisms. Disruption of the microbiota during maturation by low-dose antibiotic exposure can alter host metabolism and adiposity. We now show that low-dose penicillin (LDP), delivered from birth, induces metabolic alterations and affects ileal expression of genes involved in immunity. LDP that is limited to early life transiently perturbs the microbiota, which is sufficient to induce sustained effects on body composition, indicating that microbiota interactions in infancy may be critical determinants of long-term host metabolic effects. In addition, LDP enhances the effect of high-fat diet induced obesity. The growth promotion phenotype is transferrable to germ-free hosts by LDP-selected microbiota, showing that the altered microbiota, not antibiotics per se, play a causal role. These studies characterize important variables in early-life microbe-host metabolic interaction and identify several taxa consistently linked with metabolic alterations. PaperClip © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sioros G.,University of Porto | Guedes C.,NYU Abu Dhabi
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Syncopation is a rhythmic phenomenon present in various musical styles and cultures. We present here a set of simple rhythmic transformations that can serve as a formalized model for syncopation. The transformations are based on fundamental features of the musical meter and syncopation, as seen from a cognitive and a musical perspective. Based on this model, rhythmic patterns can be organized in tree structures where patterns are interconnected through simple transformations. A Max4Live device is presented as a creative application of the model. It manipulates the syncopation of midi “clips” by automatically de-syncopating and syncopating the midi notes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. Source

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