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Qian J.,Jiangsu University | Qian J.,Jiangxi Provincial Engineering and Technology Center for Food Additives Bio production | Zhou C.,Jiangsu University | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | And 5 more authors.
Food Biophysics | Year: 2016

Biological effect and inactivation mechanism of Bacillus subtilis exposed to pulsed magnetic field (PMF) were investigated. Cell morphology, membrane permeability, release of intracellular proteins and damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were monitored. The inactivation effect of PMF treatment on B. subtilis was enhanced with the increase in intensity and pulse number. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the PMF treated bacterial cells had rough surfaces and damaged cellular membranes. Flow cytometry measurements showed that the cell membrane permeability increased after the PMF treatment. Leakage of intracellular contents, measured as OD, significantly increased with the increase in PMF intensity and pulsed number. A maximum leakage of cytoplasmic contents was detected at intensity of 3.30 T and 30 pulses. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus - polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) fingerprint signaled that the DNA was fragmented after the PMF treatment at the intensity of 3.0 T with 30 pulses and 3.3 T with 10, 20 and 30 pulses. These findings may give clues to the mechanism of bacterial cell death due to the PMF treatment. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Qian J.,Jiangsu University | Qian J.,Jiangxi Provincial Engineering and Technology Center for Food Additives Bio production | Zhou C.,Jiangsu University | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | And 5 more authors.
Food Biophysics | Year: 2016

Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) technology has emerged as a non-thermal method for inhibition of spoilage microorganism in food. In this study, we evaluate the effect of PMF treatment on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis. The mechanisms responsible for cell death were also studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and proteome approaches. Results showed that the survival rate of B. subtilis generally decreased with an increase of pulse numbers at the intensity of 3.30 T. The observation of TEM showed damage in cell cytoplasm and cytoplasmic membrane after PMF treatment. Additionally, 18 differentially expressed protein spots were identified by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. The down-regulated outer membrane protein A (OmpA) illustrated that PMF destroyed the cell membrane. Furthermore, Gene ontology (GO) analysis and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used to characterize the functions of those proteins. That PMF treatment damaged the membrane component, depressed cellular molecular functions and biological process, and decreased the carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism, which explain the death of cells. The presented results give the better view into the proteome of food microorganism and provide insight into the nature of PMF inactivation mechanisms. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Jiangsu University | Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Nyala Technical College | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | Yagoub A.E.A.,Jiangsu University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2016

Objective: The aim of this study was to optimize the alcalse-catalyzed hydrolysis conditions of Single Frequency Counter Current Ultrasound (SFCU) pretreated sodium caseinate (NaCas). Methodology: Response Surface Method (RSM) was employed in order to maximize angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity (Y1) and degree of hydrolysis (DH) (Y2). Sonication parameters were first optimized and then pretreatment of NaCas was performed. Substrate concentration (X1), enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratio (X2) and hydrolysis time (X3) were selected to optimize the response variables (Y1 and Y2). Statistical analysis indicated that linear, interaction and quadratic terms of X1, X2 and X3 had significant effects on the response variables. Results: The mathematical model has been developed and provided a statistically accurate prediction of Y1 and Y2. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for NaCas were substrate concentration of 9.90 g L− 1, E/S ratio of 14626 U g− 1 and hydrolysis time of 60 min. At the optimal conditions, the experimental values for ACE inhibitory activity (83.64%) and the DH (15.75%) were closed to the predicted values. Compared to control, ultrasound pretreatment increased DH and ACE-inhibitory activity by 3.35 and 31.80%, respectively and decreased IC50 by 27.94%. Conclusion: The optimized conditions would provide important information on proteolysis and bioactive peptides of NaCas to the food industry. © 2016 Mohammed Adam Yahya Abdualrahman et al.


Adam Yahya Abdualrahman M.,Jiangsu University | Adam Yahya Abdualrahman M.,Nyala Technical College | Adam Yahya Abdualrahman M.,University of Gezira | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | And 6 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to investigate on the postharvest physicochemical properties of . Annona squamosa fruits. Changes in physicochemical parameters during ambient storage of the fruits for 9 days were determined. The fruits seeds' chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of the seeds oil were also studied. Results indicate that the seeds contain higher amounts of protein (18.34%) and oil (30.41%) than the fruit pulp. Levels of K, P and Mg are higher in the fruits and levels of Ca, Na, Cu, Zn and Fe are higher in the seeds. Moisture content, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, titratable acidity and total soluble solids of the fruits increased significantly (p . <. . 0.05) during the storage, while ascorbic acid and pH declined. Accordingly, a maximum of 6 day-storage period for the fruits is satisfactorily. The seed protein contains leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine and histidine comparable to World Health Organization (WHO) reference patterns. Iodine and saponification values of the seeds oil are higher but the acid value and the peroxide value are lower. The high iodine value suggests susceptibility of the oil to autoxidation. Oleic acid is the major fatty acids in the oil, followed by linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. In conclusion, the fruits' physicochemical attributes suggest its adequacy for human nutrition. The seeds oil could also be useful for edible purpose. © 2016 The Authors.


Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Nyala Technical College | Ali A.O.,University of Gezira
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Proximate analysis of Bambara groundnut flour and production of Sudanese sorghum bread kissra) supplemented with various ratios of Bambara groundnut flour were conducted. Bambara groundnut flour was used in supplementation of Sudanese baked product sorghum bread (kissra), in the ratios of 10, 20 and 30%. The pH values of Bambara groundnut flour supplemented dough's were dropped. The titrable acidity and total soluble solids were increased as a result of fermentation process. The most significant effect of kissra supplementation was the increases in protein content from 12.20±0.02% for the control sorghum bread kissra to about 13.38±0.02, 13.76±0.02 and 15.54±0.04% for kissra supplemented with 10, 20 and 30% of Bambara groundnut flour, respectively. The contents of crude fiber and ash of supplemented sorghum kissra were also increased. The replacement ratios of Bambara groundnut flour also resulted in a concomitant increase in the in vitro protein digestibility of kissra breads, The sensory evaluation revealed that the supplemented sorghum kissra was accepted by the panelists up to 10% of Bambara groundnut flour supplementation. The overall acceptance level of the different samples decreased with the additional increases of Bambara groundnuts flour supplementation. In view of the findings of this study, it is recommended that, future studies focus on the utilization of Bambara groundnuts flour on other Sudanese traditional foods such as thin and thick porridges. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Nyala Technical College | Ali A.O.,University of Gezira
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2012

In this study, de-hulled Bambara groundnuts and peanuts flours were used for full and partial substitution of sesame seeds in production of khemiss-tweria. The proximate analysis of de-hulled Bambara groundnuts flour, peanuts, sesame seeds and pearl millet flour were conducted. The chemical analysis of control and developed khemiss-tweria indicated that the contents of moisture and ash ranged between 4.00±0.03 to 4.28±0.04% and 2.50±0.01 and 4.86±0.04%, respectively, while the contents of protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate ranged from (15.06±0.02 to 24.19±0.03%) (6.69±0.03 to 10.88±0.02%) (2.12±0.03 to 2.50±0.01%) and (62.27±0.02 to 68.40±0.01%), respectively. On the other hand, the in vitro protein digestibility ranged from (75.52±0.02 to 93.16±0.04%). The most significant effect of de-hulled Bambara groundnuts flour and peanuts addition, in production of khemiss-tweria was the improvement of protein quality. Khemiss-tweria made from millets bread and peanuts had the highest in vitro protein digestibility. The sensory analysis of the different types of khemiss-tweria revealed that there was a significant differences in colour while there were no significant differences between the various types of khemiss-tweria products. However, peanuts gave higher scores to the khemiss-tweria whereby peanuts fully replaced sesame seeds than the products made from other blends. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Nyala Technical College | Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,University of Gezira | Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Jiangsu University | Osman Ali A.,University of Gezira | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2015

This study aimed to evaluate impact of utilization of peanut and bambara groundnuts for improving the nutritive value of Sudanese traditional khemiss-tweria. For this, proximate analysis, mineral, fatty acids and amino acids were studied. The crude protein contents of developed khemiss-tweria improved by 6.16, 49.37 and 53.55% over the control sample. In addition, the contents of calcium, phosphorus, plamitic and oleic acids were increased meanwhile; the contents of iron, zinc, stearic and linoleic acids were reduced as a result of peanut substitution. Furthermore, utilization of sesame seeds and bambara groundnuts in case of kh3 and peanut and bambara groundnuts in case of kh4 improved the contents of calcium, phosphorus, iron, plamitic and oleic acid whilst, decreased the contents of zinc, stearic and linoleic acids compared to control sample. However, the developers khemiss-tweria are superior with respect to arginine, leucine, phenylaline, theronine, valine and total essential amino acids, when compared to FAO/WHO reference pattern. It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed new types of khemiss-tweria with high contents of crude protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, plamitic oleic acids and essential amino acids. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Abdualrahman M.A.Y.,Nyala Technical College | Ah A.O.,University of Gezira | Elkhalifa E.A.,University of Gezira | Sulieman A.E.,University of Gezira
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verde) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74±0.02% for the control bread to 15.49±0.02, 17.00±0.05 and 18.98±0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33±0.03 in the control bread to 85.42±0.04, 86.57±0.04 and 87.64±0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased. Nutritional value of wheat bread can be enhanced by the addition of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour at a level of up to 10%. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

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