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Kumar N.J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Amb M.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Kumar R.N.,NV Patel College for Pure and Applied science | Bora A.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2011

The impact of 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron in inducing DNA damage in three species of cyanobacteria-Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima, and Westiellopsis prolifica as evidenced by PCR-based assays: RAPD and 16S rRNA amplification was examined. Exposure of genomic DNA (in vitro) to pencycuron for 4 days did not produce severe damage in DNA fragments of all three cyanobacterial species whereas exposure to 2,4-D ethyl ester markedly inhibited the template activity of genomic DNA compared to untreated cultures of A. fertilissima. In A. fertilissima a single band of approximately 1000 bp was observed even after 16 days of exposure to 60 ppm pencycuron which suggests that certain segments of DNA are resistant to pencycuron DNA damaging effects. However, a significant effect was observed in the case of W. prolifica for 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron where complete disappearance of fragments was not recorded even after 16 days of incubation and interestingly some new DNA bands were induced. Similar to the effects with RAPD profile, amplification of rRNA was significantly inhibited following exposure of genomic DNA to 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pesticide concentrations affected cyanobacterial DNA and lethality of these microbes might be due to irreversible DNA damage. Thus, it is postulated that PCR assays may be conveniently used for screening DNA damage produced by 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron in all three cyanobacteria examined in this study. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Amb M.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Kumar R.N.,NV Patel College for Pure and Applied science | Bora A.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three strains of filamentous-heterocystous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica were screened for their photosynthetic pigments, stress metabolites and enzymatic activities in response to 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid ethyl ester and 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1-cyclopentyl-3-phenylurea (Pencycuron). Amongst them, Westiellopsis prolifica grew maximally in BG 11 medium amended with both the pesticides concentrations. In 2,4-D ethyl ester treated cultures the phycobilin pigments showed superior plummet as compared to chlorophyll-a and carotenoids in all three cyanobacterial species. Phycoerythrin showed highest reduction by 86% at 60 ppm in Anabaena fertilissima cells grown in medium amended with Pencycuron. After 4 days of inoculation slight raise in protein content at lower concentrations of 2,4-D was recorded in three species, whereas in Pencycuron treated cultures Anabaena fertilissima (10% at 60 ppm) and Aulosira fertilissima (7% at 60ppm) showed minor lapse, and W. prolifica was unaffected in all treated concentrations. However, carbohydrates and amino acids have shown inhibitor effect on the three species of cyanobacteria in response of the increasing concentration of both the pesticides, on the other hand, phenols exhibited the increasing trend. Activity of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and succinate dehydrogenase were adversely affected in all three species when treated with the increasing concentrations of both the pesticides.


Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Kumar R.N.,NV Patel College for Pure and Applied science | Amb M.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Bora A.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Sudeshnachakraborty,NV Patel College for Pure and Applied science
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Eighteen species of marine macroalgae belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were surveyed, collected from Okha coast, Gulf of Kutch, India and compared for their biochemical composition. The macroalgae showed varied quantities of biochemical constituents like total carbohydrate, total protein, amino acid, phenol and total lipid. The concentration of carbohydrate was higher in most of the species of Chlorophyta followed by Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, while high amount of amino acid was found in the species belonged to Rhodophyta as compared to Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta. The protein content was rich in the sequence of members belonged to Rhodophyta> Chlorophyta> Phaeophyta, in contrast, lipid content was observed in the sequence of members belonged to Phaeophyta> Chlorophyta> Rhodophyta. However, phenol concentration was in inverse to carbohydrate in studied marine macroalgae. The carbohydrate, amino acid, protein, lipid and phenol content were determined in the range of 16-45%, 9-20%, 10-35%, 0.4-14% and 8- 34% of the fresh weight, respectively. In addition, significant individual differences of the biochemical parameters were recorded in all tested marine alga and the results were also substantiated with the findings of earlier reports.

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