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Adluri R.S.,University of Connecticut | Thirunavukkarasu M.,University of Connecticut | Zhan L.,University of Connecticut | Maulik N.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Circumstantial evidence frequently implicates oxygen-derived free radicals and oxidative stress as mediators of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, external supplementation of natural antioxidants plays a main role as cardioprotective compounds. This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of VitaePro (70 mg/kg body weight, 21 days), a novel antioxidant mix of astaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin in a rat ex vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effect of VitaePro was also compared with vitamin E (70 mg/kg body weight, 21 days) treatment. Rats were randomized into control I/R (CIR), VitaePro I/R (VPIR) and Vitamin E I/R (VEIR). After 21 days of oral treatment, isolated hearts from each group were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. In the VPIR group compared to CIR and VEIR groups at 2 h of reperfusion, increased left ventricular functional recovery, such as left ventricular developed pressure (92.7 ± 0.7 vs. 85.3 ± 0.3 and 89.4 ± 1.2 mm Hg), dp/dtmax (2518.7 ± 77.9 vs. 1962.5 ± 24 and 2255.7 ± 126.6 mm Hg/s), and aortic flow (21.5 ± 1.36 vs. 4.4 ± 0.6 and 13.2 ± 1.02 ml/min) were observed. The infarct size (27.68 ± 1.7 vs. 45.4 ± 1.8 and 35.4 ± 0.6%), apoptotic cardiomyocytes (61.7 ± 10.6 vs. 194.1 ± 14.8 and 118.7 ± 15.4 counts/100 HPF) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (80 ± 3 vs. 127 ± 5 and 103 ± 2 nM/mg tissue) also were decreased in VPIR group when compared to CIR and VEIR. As evidenced by the data, administration of vitamin E offered substantial cardioprotection to I/R injury, but VitaePro enhanced cardioprotection significantly more than vitamin E treatment. Taken in concert, the results of this study suggests that the oral ingestion of VitaePro protects myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and apoptosis, which may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of cardiovascular complications. However, further in vivo animal and human intervention studies are warranted before establishing any recommendations about usage of VitaePro for human cardiovascular complications. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gupta R.C.,Murray State University | Canerdy T.D.,Murray State University | Lindley J.,Murray State University | Konemann M.,Murray State University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

Summary: The investigation was conducted on client-owned moderately arthritic dogs with two objectives: (i) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and chondroitin sulphate (CHO), and (ii) to determine their tolerability and safety. Dogs in four groups (n=7-10), were treated daily for a period of 150days with placebo (Group-I), 10mg active UC-II (Group-II), 2000mg GLU+1600mg CHO (Group-III), and UC-II+GLU+CHO (Group-IV). On a monthly basis, dogs were evaluated for observational pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and pain after physical exertion) using different numeric scales. Pain level was also measured objectively using piezoelectric sensor-based GFP for peak vertical force and impulse area. Dogs were also examined every month for physical, hepatic (ALP, ALT and bilirubin) and renal (BUN and creatinine) functions. Based on observations, significant (p<0.05) reduction in pain was noted in Group-II, III, and IV dogs. Using GFP, significant increases in peak vertical force (N/kg body wt) and impulse area (Ns/kg body wt), indicative of a decrease in arthritis associated pain, were observed in Group-II dogs only. None of the dogs in any group showed changes in physical, hepatic or renal functions. In conclusion, based on GFP data, moderately arthritic dogs treated with UC-II (10mg) showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with maximum improvement by day 150. UC-II, GLU and CHO operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150days. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Adluri R.S.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Zhan L.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Bagchi M.,NutriToday | Maulik N.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Maulik G.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Calcium is an essential mineral to support bone health and serves as a major therapeutic intervention to prevent and delay the incidence of osteoporosis. Many individuals do not obtain the optimum amount of calcium from diets and depend on bioavailable calcium supplements. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of a novel plant-based calcium supplement, derived from marine algae, and contains high levels of calcium, magnesium, and other bone supporting minerals [commercially known as AlgaeCal (AC)], on proliferation, mineralization, and oxidative stress in cultured human osteoblast cells, and compared with inorganic calcium carbonate and calcium citrate salts. Cultured human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19) were treated with AC (0.5 mg/ml, fixed by MTT assay), calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate. These cells were harvested after 4 days of treatment for ALP activity, PCNA expression, and DNA synthesis, and 2 days for Ca2+ deposition in the presence and absence of vitamin D3 (5 nM). The ability of AC to reduce H2O 2 (0.3 mM)-induced oxidative stress was assessed after 24 h of treatment. ALP activity was significantly increased with AC treatment when compared to control, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate (4.0-, 2.0-, and 2.5-fold, respectively). PCNA expression (immunocytochemical analysis), DNA synthesis (4.0-, 3.0-, and 4.0-fold, respectively), and Ca2+ deposition (2.0-, 1.0-, and 4.0-fold, respectively) were significantly increased in AC-treated cells when compared with control, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate treatment. These markers were further enhanced following additional supplementation of vitamin D3 in the AC-treated group cells. AC treatment significantly reduced the H2O2-induced oxidative stress when compared to calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (1.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These findings suggest that AC may serve as a superior calcium supplement as compared to other calcium salts tested in the present study. Hence, AC may be developed as a novel anti-osteoporotic supplement in the near future. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Marone P.A.,Eurofins | Yasmin T.,Creighton University | Gupta R.C.,Murray State University | Bagchi M.,NutriToday
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2010

The present study was conducted to examine the safety of a novel plant-based calcium supplement, derived from marine algae and containing high levels of calcium, magnesium, and other bone supporting minerals (commercially known as AlgaeCal® (AC)). The present study evaluated the broad-spectrum safety of AC using a variety of toxicological assays including acute oral, acute dermal, primary skin irritation, and primary eye irritation toxicity. Under the conditions of the study, the acute oral LD50 of AC was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg body weight in rats, while the single acute dermal LD50 was greater than 2000mg/kg body weight. The primary skin irritation index of AC was found to be 0.4 and classified as slightly irritating to the skin. In primary eye irritation studies, the maximum mean total score of AC was observed to be 13.7 and classified as mildly irritating to the eye. Furthermore, another independent set of studies was conducted to obtain preliminary data for the teratogenic effects of AC in pregnant rats likely to arise from repeated gestational exposure, via oral gavage, over a test period of implantation through gestation (gestation days 519). Under the conditions of this pilot study, the effect of daily administration of AC by oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 500, 2500, and 5000mg/kg/day during gestation days 519 of a 21-day pregnancy has appeared to result in no adverse toxicological effects to the pregnant rat or its developing offspring. A slight, non-significant increase in the incidence of incomplete sterna ossification (5th center) was observed. Under the conditions of the study, a no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5000mg/kg/day of AC during pregnancy of the rat was observed. Overall, no significant toxicities of AC were observed in these toxicity models. Therefore, the results from the current study demonstrate a broad-spectrum safety profile of AC. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

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