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Jourdan M.,University of Paris Descartes | Deutz N.E.P.,Maastricht University | Deutz N.E.P.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Cynober L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Rationale: In elderly subjects, splanchnic extraction of amino acids (AA) increases during meals in a process known as splanchnic sequestration of amino acids (SSAA). This process potentially contributes to the age-related progressive decline in muscle mass via reduced peripheral availability of dietary AA. SSAA mechanisms are unknown but may involve an increased net utilization of ingested AA in the splanchnic area. Objectives: Using stable isotope methodology in fed adult and old rats to provide insight into age-related SSAA using three hypotheses: 1) an increase in protein synthesis in the gut and/or the liver, 2) an increase in AA oxidation related to an increased ureagenesis, and 3) Kupffer cell (KC) activation consequently to age-related low-grade inflammation. Findings: Splanchnic extraction of Leu (SPELeu) was doubled in old rats compared to adult rats and was not changed after KC inactivation. No age-related effects on gut and liver protein synthesis were observed, but urea synthesis was lower in old rats and negatively correlated to liver Arg utilization. Net whole-body protein synthesis and arterial AA levels were lower in old rats and correlated negatively with SPELeu. Conclusion: SSAA is not the consequence of age-related alterations in ureagenesis, gut or liver protein synthesis or of KC activity. However, SSAA may be related to reduced net whole-body protein synthesis and consequently to the reduced lean body mass that occurs during aging. © 2011 Jourdan et al.

Dashti M.,University of Glasgow | Dashti M.,Nutrition Unit | Scott J.A.,Curtin University Australia | Edwards C.A.,University of Glasgow | Al-Sughayer M.,Kuwait University
Nutrients | Year: 2014

The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant's father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Goldzak-Kunik G.,Haifa University | Goldzak-Kunik G.,Nutrition Unit | Friedman R.,Adolescent Clinic | Spitz M.,Child and Family Unit | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: In anorexia nervosa (AN), taste and smell are believed to be anhedonic, hunger and pain are muted, and body-image distortion obscures wasting, which together facilitate self-starvation. However, the emphasis on these deficits may be biased because other sensory systems have been sparsely investigated. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to clarify whether these dysfunctions are specific or part of a pattern of sensory-perceptual deficits in AN patients and to test the gustatory senses dissociated from ingestion to clarify whether any deficit is sensory or affective. Design: In 15 adolescent, first-episode, hospitalized, restrictive AN patients and 15 matched healthy controls who responded to gustatory stimuli (intensity and hedonics of 5 basic tastes and tastes and odors of foods and nonfoods), size estimation (manual and oral judgment of size and shape, kinesthesia, and body size and esthetics), cold pain, and auditory and visual processing were compared. Results: AN patients did not differ on most tests, were better at odor recognition, were less successful in central auditory processing and oral assessment of size and shape, and may have been more sensitive to cold. Body-image dissatisfaction in AN patients was not related to dysfunctional size estimation. Conclusions: There is no systematic sensory-perceptual deficit in AN patients, and specifically, not in gustatory function. The few differences shown might be due to fear of food-related stimuli or comorbidity. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Agostoni C.,University of Milan | Caroli M.,Nutrition Unit
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Aims: Compared to exclusive breastfeeding, the introduction of solids leads to a reduction of dietary fats. We explore the hypothesis that dietary fats consumed in the 6-24-month period might have later effects on non-communicable disorders and health. Data synthesis: We have considered studies on dietary fats as substrate for oxidation and energy production, effects on adiposity, blood lipoprotein levels and features of the metabolic syndrome, and the possible influences on brain development and function. Fat oxidation, despite a high initial dietary supply, is greatly suppressed and only gradually increases after birth. There is no evidence of any convincing association between fat intake during the 6-24-month period and later indices of adiposity. Fat quality may affect the blood lipoprotein picture at short-term through the first 12 months of life. In a large Finnish trial, a moderately restricted fat diet started at 7 months, with an increased unsaturated/saturated fat ratio, has shown favourable effects on serum cholesterol values, indices of insulin resistance and endothelial function especially in boys, and had no negative effects until the age of 18 years. The dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid might affect brain development as well as some features of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: In the 6-24-month period, the amount of fat intake does not show associations with later health conditions, and relatively high-fat diets do not seem to be harmful. Fat quality may have later effects on chronic-degenerative processes that need to be explored more in depth. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tellechea M.,University of Buenos Aires | Gianotti T.F.,University of Buenos Aires | Alvarinas J.,Nutrition Unit | Gonzalez C.D.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with birth weight in both extremes of abnormal fetal growth: small (SGA) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA). Clinical and laboratory variables of the mothers and the neonates were explored; 45 newborns with appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA), 12 SGA and 12 LGA were included. Whether the differences might be explained by variation in OBFC1 (rs9419958) and CTC1 (rs3027234) genes associated with LTL was determined. A significant association between birth weight and LTL was observed; LTL was significantly shorter in LGA newborns (1.01 ± 0.12) compared with SGA (1.73 ± 0.19) p < 0.005, mean ± SE. Maternal (Spearman R = â '0.6, p = 0.03) and neonatal LTL (R = '0.25, p = 0.03) were significantly and inversely correlated with maternal history of arterial hypertension in previous gestations. Neonatal LTL was not significantly associated with either rs9419950 or rs3027234, suggesting that the association between neonatal LTL and birth weight is not influenced by genetic variation in genes that modify the interindividual LTL. In conclusion, telomere biology seems to be modulated by abnormal fetal growth modifications in telomere length might be programmed by an adverse environment in utero.

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