Nutrition Unit

H̱olon, Israel

Nutrition Unit

H̱olon, Israel
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Hussein N.R.,Duhok University | Tunjel I.,Fatih University | Majed H.S.,Nutrition Unit | Yousif S.T.,Duhok University | And 2 more authors.
New Microbes and New Infections | Year: 2015

Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/. vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR=2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H.pylori dupA-negative and H.pylori dupA1-positive strains (. dupA-negative: mean±median: 28±26 versus 30±27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure. © 2015 .

News Article | December 22, 2016

Weight loss has a significant and prolonged positive impact on psoriasis symptoms and quality of life. The findings stem from a study conducted by Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, in collaboration with the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports and other participants. The results are published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, an internationally renowned scientific journal. Sixty test-subjects, obese and affected by psoriasis, lost an average of fifteen kilos over a sixteen-week period while improving their quality of life and reducing the severity of their psoriasis. Upon follow up, one year later, the subjects remained ten kilos below their starting weights, and improvements in their psoriasis symptoms and quality of life were maintained. "150,000 Danes suffer from varying degrees of psoriasis," explains the study's project manager, Professor and Senior Physician Lone Skov, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Copenhagen. We know that there is a connection between being overweight and psoriasis; being more overweight makes the disease worse. Skov is supported by article co-author, Professor Arne Astrup, of the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports: "We know that both psoriasis and obesity are linked with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. If we could get obese psoriasis patients to lose weight and keep the weight off, we could potentially derive positive effects on their overall health and quality of life as well." A study conducted in 2012 lead to obese test subjects with psoriasis losing between 10-15% of their starting weights. The study demonstrated that there was a tendency for weight loss to reduce the severity of psoriasis among the subjects. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated that weight loss lead to a significantly better quality of life - with a lasting effect. "When we revisited test subjects one year later, they had only regained five kilos. Thus, they remained ten kilos beneath their starting weights. This was impressive in and of itself, but it was even more positive that they had maintained the effects of their initial weight loss with regards to the diminished severity of their psoriasis and quality of life," explains Dr. Peter Jensen, senior resident, ph.d. at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. Professor Arne Astrup points to the relevance of the results for psoriasis treatment: "The results underscore the importance of focusing on weight loss as one element in a broad spectrum approach to effective psoriasis treatment for overweight patients. A by-product of weight loss might be a reduction of the complications associated with obesity. This results in a significant effect on the overall well-being of patients." The study was a collaboration between the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Department of Cardiology at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen; Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg Hospital and the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports at the University of Copenhagen; and the Nutrition Unit at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. The study results are published in the article, 'Long-term effects of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in a cohort derived from a randomized trial: a prospective observational follow-up study', found in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Psoriasis is a hereditary and chronic skin disease that affects roughly 150,000 Danes. The disease is characterized by the presence of red, itchy and scaly patches of abnormal skin. The severity varies greatly from person to person.

Anbar R.,Nutrition Unit | Anbar R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Beloosesky Y.,Tel Aviv University | Cohen J.,Tel Aviv University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background & aims: Optimizing nutritional intake has been recommended for geriatric patients undergoing hip-fracture surgery. Whether nutritional support guided by repeated measurements of resting energy requirements (REE) improves outcomes in these patients is not known. Methods: A randomized, controlled, unblinded, prospective, cohort study comparing provision of energy with a goal determined by repeated REE measurements using indirect calorimetry, with no intervention. Oral nutritional supplements were started 24hafter surgery and the amount adjusted to make up the difference between energy received from hospital food and measured energy expenditure. Results: 50 Geriatric patients were included in the study. Patients in the intervention group (n=22) received significantly higher daily energy intake than the control group (n=28) (1121.3±299.0 vs. 777.1±301.2kcal, p=0.001). This was associated with a significantly less negative cumulative energy balance (-1229.9±1763 vs.-4975.5±4368kcal, p=0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between the cumulative energy balance and total complication rate (r=-0.417, p=0.003) as well as for length of hospital stay (r=-0.282, p=0.049). Conclusion: We have demonstrated that nutritional support actively supervised by a dietician and guided by repeated measurements of REE was achievable and improved outcomes in geriatric patients following surgery for hip fractures. Identifier: NCT017354435. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Goldzak-Kunik G.,Haifa University | Goldzak-Kunik G.,Nutrition Unit | Goldzak-Kunik G.,Clalit Health Service | Friedman R.,Clalit Health Service | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: In anorexia nervosa (AN), taste and smell are believed to be anhedonic, hunger and pain are muted, and body-image distortion obscures wasting, which together facilitate self-starvation. However, the emphasis on these deficits may be biased because other sensory systems have been sparsely investigated. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to clarify whether these dysfunctions are specific or part of a pattern of sensory-perceptual deficits in AN patients and to test the gustatory senses dissociated from ingestion to clarify whether any deficit is sensory or affective. Design: In 15 adolescent, first-episode, hospitalized, restrictive AN patients and 15 matched healthy controls who responded to gustatory stimuli (intensity and hedonics of 5 basic tastes and tastes and odors of foods and nonfoods), size estimation (manual and oral judgment of size and shape, kinesthesia, and body size and esthetics), cold pain, and auditory and visual processing were compared. Results: AN patients did not differ on most tests, were better at odor recognition, were less successful in central auditory processing and oral assessment of size and shape, and may have been more sensitive to cold. Body-image dissatisfaction in AN patients was not related to dysfunctional size estimation. Conclusions: There is no systematic sensory-perceptual deficit in AN patients, and specifically, not in gustatory function. The few differences shown might be due to fear of food-related stimuli or comorbidity. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Velasco C.,Nutrition Unit | Garcia E.,Nutrition Unit | Rodriguez V.,HGU Principe de Asturias | Frias L.,Nutrition Unit | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: The prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals is high. No nutritional screening tool is considered the gold standard for identifying nutritional risk. The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional risk in hospitalized patients using four nutritional screening tools.Subjects/Methods: Four nutritional screening tools were evaluated: nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002), the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), the subjective global assessment (SGA) and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Patients were assessed within the first 36 h after hospital admission. Date of admission, diagnosis, complications and date of discharge were collected. To compare the tools, the results were reorganized into: patients at risk and patients with a good nutritional status. The statistical analysis included the Ξ2-test to assess differences between the tests and the κ statistic to assess agreement between the tests.Results: The study sample comprised 400 patients (159 women, 241 men), mean age 67.3 (16.1) years. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the NRS-2002, MUST, SGA and MNA was 34.5, 31.5, 35.3 and 58.5%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between the four nutritional screening tools (P<0.001). The agreement between the tools was quite good except for the MNA (MNA-SGA κ = 0.491, NRS-2002-SGA κ = 0.620 and MUST-SGA κ = 0.635). Patients at nutritional risk developed more complications during admission and had an increased length of stay.Conclusions: The prevalence of nutritional risk in hospitalized patients was high with all the tools used. The best agreement between the tools was for NRS-2002 with SGA and MUST with SGA. At admission, NRS-2002 and MUST should be used to screen for nutritional status. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Agostoni C.,University of Milan | Caroli M.,Nutrition Unit
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Aims: Compared to exclusive breastfeeding, the introduction of solids leads to a reduction of dietary fats. We explore the hypothesis that dietary fats consumed in the 6-24-month period might have later effects on non-communicable disorders and health. Data synthesis: We have considered studies on dietary fats as substrate for oxidation and energy production, effects on adiposity, blood lipoprotein levels and features of the metabolic syndrome, and the possible influences on brain development and function. Fat oxidation, despite a high initial dietary supply, is greatly suppressed and only gradually increases after birth. There is no evidence of any convincing association between fat intake during the 6-24-month period and later indices of adiposity. Fat quality may affect the blood lipoprotein picture at short-term through the first 12 months of life. In a large Finnish trial, a moderately restricted fat diet started at 7 months, with an increased unsaturated/saturated fat ratio, has shown favourable effects on serum cholesterol values, indices of insulin resistance and endothelial function especially in boys, and had no negative effects until the age of 18 years. The dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid might affect brain development as well as some features of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: In the 6-24-month period, the amount of fat intake does not show associations with later health conditions, and relatively high-fat diets do not seem to be harmful. Fat quality may have later effects on chronic-degenerative processes that need to be explored more in depth. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Glasson C.,Nutrition Unit | Chapman K.,Nutrition Unit | James E.,University of Newcastle
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2011

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fruit and vegetables should be treated as separate groups in health promotion programmes by examining consumption levels, barriers, knowledge and the association between stage of change and potential predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Design Computer-assisted telephone interview survey of the target population. Setting Hunter and New England regions of New South Wales, Australia. Subjects A total of 1403 parents and carers of primary-school-aged children. Results Consumption levels and knowledge of recommended intakes and serving size were greater for fruit than for vegetables. There were some differences in the main barriers to the consumption of fruit compared with those cited for vegetables. There was little congruence between the stages of change for fruit consumption and those for vegetable consumption. For fruit, knowledge of serving size and recommended intake, perceptions of adequate consumption, changes made to family intake and educational attainment were all correlated with stage of change categorisation. For vegetables, knowledge of recommended intake, perceptions of adequate consumption and changes made to family intake were correlated with stage of change categorisation. Conclusions Significant differences in consumption levels, barriers, knowledge and stages of readiness for change can be shown when fruit and vegetables are treated as separate groups. Health promotion planners may need to consider interventions that focus on improving vegetable consumption in preference to fruit consumption. Messages about the recommended number of servings and serving size must be simplified and this may be achieved by targeting messages towards vegetable consumption. © The Authors 2010.

Caroli M.,Nutrition Unit | Mele R.M.,Nutrition Unit | Tomaselli M.A.,Nutrition Unit | Cammisa M.,Nutrition Unit | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The commonest risk factors for early introduction of solid foods have been shown to be smoking mothers of young age, low SES and no breastfeeding. The foods most frequently introduced as first solids are fruit and cereals followed by other foods that vary depending on the country of residence and the infants' type of feeding. Insufficient updated information has been made available in Europe in terms of infants' nutrient intake during complementary feeding, as well as on the potential acute metabolic effects of complementary feeding. Websites, e-forums and blogs on complementary feeding are widely spread in the web. The recipes and daily menus published in food industry websites are often nutritionally incorrect. Baby led-weaning (BLW) is based on the principle that babies, upon being started on complementary foods, should be allowed to eat whatever food they want (regular family foods included) in its normal shape. No nutrient intake and metabolic data are nevertheless available about BLW. The current scenario in terms of our understanding of complementary feeding in Europe opens several new research avenues. Not using and not improving our current knowledge of nutrition to improve children's health represents an infringement of children's rights. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mehdi Y.,Nutrition Unit | Hornick J.-L.,Nutrition Unit | Istasse L.,Nutrition Unit | Dufrasne I.,ULg FMV
Molecules | Year: 2013

Selenium (Se34 79) is a metalloid which is close to sulfur (S) in terms of properties. The Se concentration in soil varies with type, texture and organic matter content of the soil and with rainfall. Its assimilation by plants is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil (redox status, pH and microbial activity). The presence of Se in the atmosphere is linked to natural and anthropogenic activities. Selenoproteins, in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, present an important role in many body functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. Some selenoprotein metabolites play a role in cancer prevention. In the immune system, selenium stimulates antibody formation and activity of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells. The mechanisms of intestinal absorption of selenium differ depending on the chemical form of the element. Selenium is mainly absorbed in the duodenum and caecum by active transport through a sodium pump. The recommended daily intake of selenium varies from 60 μg/day for women, to 70 μg/day for men. In growing ruminants the requirements are estimated at 100 μg/kg dry matter and 200 μg/Kg for pregnant or lactating females. A deficiency can cause reproductive disorders in humans and animals.

Tellechea M.,University of Buenos Aires | Gianotti T.F.,University of Buenos Aires | Alvarinas J.,Nutrition Unit | Gonzalez C.D.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with birth weight in both extremes of abnormal fetal growth: small (SGA) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA). Clinical and laboratory variables of the mothers and the neonates were explored; 45 newborns with appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA), 12 SGA and 12 LGA were included. Whether the differences might be explained by variation in OBFC1 (rs9419958) and CTC1 (rs3027234) genes associated with LTL was determined. A significant association between birth weight and LTL was observed; LTL was significantly shorter in LGA newborns (1.01 ± 0.12) compared with SGA (1.73 ± 0.19) p < 0.005, mean ± SE. Maternal (Spearman R = â '0.6, p = 0.03) and neonatal LTL (R = '0.25, p = 0.03) were significantly and inversely correlated with maternal history of arterial hypertension in previous gestations. Neonatal LTL was not significantly associated with either rs9419950 or rs3027234, suggesting that the association between neonatal LTL and birth weight is not influenced by genetic variation in genes that modify the interindividual LTL. In conclusion, telomere biology seems to be modulated by abnormal fetal growth modifications in telomere length might be programmed by an adverse environment in utero.

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