Alberta, Canada
Alberta, Canada

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Alexander A.G.,University of California at Riverside | Grant W.L.,Nutrition Services | Pedrino K.J.,Nutrition Education Manager | Lyons P.E.,University of California at Riverside
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective Study the effects of multiple exercise and nutritional educational interventions on adverse body mass index (BMI) gain of BMI sub-groups of predominately Hispanic six through eight year-old children at high risk for obesity. Methods BMI and demographic data were recorded at baseline and six months later in 749 first and second grade public school children at four elementary schools. Two schools (intervention group) received 150 min of extra physical education classes, weekly cooking classes, a structured nutritional curriculum, and parental counseling. BMI changes were calculated for each student and compared by BMI percentile subgroups using the two tailed T-test. Results No statistical BMI differences occurred between intervention and control group children below the 25th percentile. Significance differences in BMI gain were noted from the 25th to the 50th percentile (P = 0.027), 50th-75th percentile (P = 0.045), and 75th-95th percentile (P = 0.00007), but not for the 95th-98th percentile (P = 0.288), 98th and above (P = 0.223), or both obese groups combined (P = 0.085). Conclusions Nutritional education and exercise can prevent but not treat obesity in predominately Hispanic first and second grade children. BMI subgroups should be studied to avoid masking differing outcomes of obese and nonobese children. © 2013 The Obesity Society.


Mathur S.,University of Auckland | Plank L.D.,University of Auckland | McCall J.L.,New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit | Shapkov P.,University of Auckland | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Major surgery is associated with postoperative insulin resistance which is attenuated by preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) treatment. The effect of this treatment on clinical outcome after major abdominal surgery has not been assessed in a double-blind randomized trial. Methods: Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery or liver resection were randomized to oral CHO or placebo drinks to be taken on the evening before surgery and 2 h before induction of anaesthesia. Primary outcomes were postoperative length of hospital stay and fatigue measured by visual analogue scale. Results: Sixty-nine and 73 patients were evaluated in the CHO and placebo groups respectively. The groups were well matched with respect to surgical procedure, epidural analgesia, laparoscopic procedures, fasting period before induction and duration of surgery. Postoperative changes in fatigue score from baseline did not differ between the groups. Median (range) hospital stay was 7 (2-35) days in the CHO group and 8 (2-92) days in the placebo group (P = 0-344). For patients not receiving epidural blockade or laparoscopic surgery (20 CHO, 19 placebo), values were 7 (3-11) and 9 (2-48) days respectively (P = 0-054). Conclusion: Preoperative CHO treatment did not improve postoperative fatigue or length of hospital stay after major abdominal surgery. A benefit is not ruled out when epidural blockade or laparoscopic procedures are not used. Registration number: ACTRN012605000456651 (http://www.anzctr.org.au). © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.


Tudehope D.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Tudehope D.,University of Queensland | Gibbons K.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Cormack B.,Nutrition Services | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2012

Growth charts are the mainstay of monitoring growth in babies who were born small or preterm. A variety of different charts are available, each with specific limitations. Most birthweight centile charts underestimate growth restriction in preterm babies and there are few good charts for monitoring longitudinal growth in preterm babies; it is important to be aware of the limitations of using cross-sectional data for monitoring longitudinal growth. Customised centile charts of fetal growth are used increasingly for antenatal monitoring for small-for-gestational age fetuses despite a lack of robust evidence. It is also unclear whether customised centile charts should be used for assessing birthweight, particularly in babies born at term. Faltering post-natal growth in preterm babies is very common but need not be universal with close attention to nutrition. Monitoring of growth trajectories through infancy following either fetal growth restriction or post-natal faltering growth is important to ensure proportional growth, particularly during periods of accelerated growth. This review will discuss these issues in the context of current practice in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).


Beggs M.R.,Nutrition Services | Beggs M.R.,Stollery Childrens Hospital | Garcia Guerra G.,Stollery Childrens Hospital | Garcia Guerra G.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN | Year: 2016

Background & Aims: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is considered gold standard for assessing energy needs of critically ill children as predictive equations and clinical status indicators are often unreliable. Accurate assessment of energy requirements in this vulnerable population is essential given the high risk of over or underfeeding and the consequences thereof. The proportion of patients and patient days in pediatric intensive care (PICU) for which energy expenditure (EE) can be measured using IC is currently unknown. In the current study, we aimed to quantify the daily proportion of consecutive PICU patients who met technical criteria to perform indirect calorimetry and describe the technical contraindications when criteria were not met. Methods: Prospective, observational, single-centre study conducted in a cardiac and general PICU. All consecutive patients admitted for at least 96 h were included in the study. Variables collected for each patient included age at admission, admission diagnosis, and if technical criteria for indirect calorimetry were met. Technical criteria variables were collected within the same 2 h each morning and include: provision of supplemental oxygen, ventilator settings, endotracheal tube (ETT) leak, diagnosis of chest tube air leak, provision of external gas support (i.e. nitric oxide), and provision of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Results: 288 patients were included for a total of 3590 patient days between June 2014 and February 2015. The main reasons for admission were: surgery (cardiac and non-cardiac), respiratory distress, trauma, oncology and medicine/other. The median (interquartile range) patient age was 0.7 (0.3-4.6) years. The median length of PICU stay was 7 (5-14) days. Only 34% (95% CI, 32.4-35.5%) of patient days met technical criteria for IC. For patients less than 6 months of age, technical criteria were met on significantly fewer patient days (29%, p < 0.01). Moreover, 27% of patients did not meet technical criteria for IC on any day during their PICU stay. Most frequent reasons for why IC could not be performed included supplemental oxygen, ECMO, and ETT leak. Conclusions: In the current study, technical criteria to perform IC in the PICU were not met for 27% of patients and were not met on 66% of patient days. Moreover, criteria were met on only 29% of days for infants 6 months and younger where children 24 months of age and older still only met criteria on 40% of patient days. This data represents a major gap in the feasibility of current recommendations for assessing energy requirements of this population. Future studies are needed to improve methods of predicting and measuring energy requirements in critically ill children who do not meet current criteria for indirect calorimetry. © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.


Wharton D.,Conservation Science | Dowler R.,Angelo State University | Watts J.,Nutrition Services
Zoo Biology | Year: 2012

Nesoryzomys swarthi, the most endangered of the three surviving, endemic Galapagos "rice rats," was only discovered in the early 20th Century and was considered extinct until its rediscovery in 1997 at a north-central coastal location on Isla Santiago. Potential threats to the entire genus include invasive rodent species, feral cats, new diseases, and climate change. These threats have been the basis for conservation breeding recommendations (as yet unmet) by several observers during the last several decades. This paper considers likely dietary requirements of N. swarthi in light of recent studies on the ecology of this species plus new data on the nutrient composition of Opuntia galapageia (a "resource refuge" for this species) and circulating vitamin values of animals sampled on Isla Santiago. It is concluded that, despite some unusually high mineral values for O. galapageia, a diet for N. swarthi under human care should be the same as it is for most other rodents, noting some caution in regard to possible needs for mineral and/or protein adjustment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Nutrition Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Physician and sportsmedicine | Year: 2010

The arrival of every new year prompts many of us to resolve to eat more wisely. These healthful eating tips can help you feel great, perform well, and invest in your well-being for many new years to come.


PubMed | Nutrition Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Physician and sportsmedicine | Year: 2010

Once upon a time, eggs were considered a breakfast of champions. Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.


PubMed | Nutrition Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Physician and sportsmedicine | Year: 2010

Many casual exercisers and competitive athletes believe they should avoid food for several hours before they exercise or compete. Others wonder if they should snack, perhaps on an energy bar before a soccer game. And a few are so nervous that even the thought of food is nauseating.

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