Nutrition Section

Nairobi, Kenya

Nutrition Section

Nairobi, Kenya
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Knowles J.M.,Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition | Garrett G.S.,Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition | Gorstein J.,Sajilo Solutions International | Kupka R.,Nutrition Section | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2017

Background: Household coverage with iodized salt was assessed in 10 countries that implemented Universal Salt Iodization (USI). Objective: The objective of this paper was to summarize household coverage data for iodized salt, including the relation between coverage and residence type and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: A review was conducted of results from cross-sectional multistage household cluster surveys with the use of stratified probability proportional to size design in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Niger, the Philippines, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. Salt iodine content was assessed with quantitative methods in all cases. The primary indicator of coverage was percentage of households that used adequately iodized salt, with an additional indicator for salt with some added iodine. Indicators of risk were SES and residence type. We used 95% CIs to determine significant differences in coverage. Results: National household coverage of adequately iodized salt varied from 6.2% in Niger to 97.0% in Uganda. For salt with some added iodine, coverage varied from 52.4% in the Philippines to 99.5% in Uganda. Coverage with adequately iodized salt was significantly higher in urban than in rural households in Bangladesh (68.9% compared with 44.3%, respectively), India (86.4% compared with 69.8%, respectively), Indonesia (59.3% compared with 51.4%, respectively), the Philippines (31.5% compared with 20.2%, respectively), Senegal (53.3% compared with 19.0%, respectively), and Tanzania (89.2% compared with 57.6%, respectively). In 7 of 8 countries with data, household coverage of adequately iodized salt was significantly higher in high- than in low-SES households in Bangladesh (58.8% compared with 39.7%, respectively), Ghana (36.2% compared with 21.5%, respectively), India (80.6% compared with 70.5%, respectively), Indonesia (59.9% compared with 45.6%, respectively), the Philippines (39.4% compared with 17.3%, respectively), Senegal (50.7% compared with 27.6%, respectively) and Tanzania (80.9% compared with 51.3%, respectively). Conclusions: Uganda has achieved USI. In other countries, access to iodized salt is inequitable. Quality control and regulatory enforcement of salt iodization remain challenging. Notable progress toward USI has been made in Ethiopia and India. Assessing progress toward USI only through household salt does not account for potentially iodized salt consumed through processed foods. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

Daelmans B.,World Health Organization | Ferguson E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Lutter C.K.,Pan American Health Organization | Singh N.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2013

Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of stunting in young children from age 6 months. The design of effective programmes to improve infant and young child feeding requires a sound understanding of the local situation and a systematic process for prioritizing interventions, integrating them into existing delivery platforms and monitoring their implementation and impact. The identification of adequate food-based feeding recommendations that respect locally available foods and address gaps in nutrient availability is particularly challenging. We describe two tools that are now available to strengthen infant and young child-feeding programming at national and subnational levels. ProPAN is a set of research tools that guide users through a step-by-step process for identifying problems related to young child nutrition; defining the context in which these problems occur; formulating, testing, and selecting behaviour-change recommendations and nutritional recipes; developing the interventions to promote them; and designing a monitoring and evaluation system to measure progress towards intervention goals. Optifood is a computer-based platform based on linear programming analysis to develop nutrient-adequate feeding recommendations at lowest cost, based on locally available foods with the addition of fortified products or supplements when needed, or best recommendations when the latter are not available. The tools complement each other and a case study from Peru illustrates how they have been used. The readiness of both instruments will enable partners to invest in capacity development for their use in countries and strengthen programmes to address infant and young child feeding and prevent malnutrition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Talley L.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Boyd E.,Nutrition Section
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background and Objectives: Following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, infant and young child feeding was identified as a priority nutrition intervention. A new approach to support breastfeeding mothers and distribute ready-to-use infant formula (RUIF) to infants unable to breastfeed was established. The objective of the evaluation was to assess the implementation of infant feeding programs using RUIF in displaced persons camps in Port-au-Prince, Haiti during the humanitarian response. Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted from April-July, 2010 to obtain data on infants receiving RUIF in 30 baby tents. A standardized data collection form was created based on data collected across baby tents and included: basic demographics, admission criteria, primary caretaker, feeding practices, and admission and follow-up anthropometrics. Main Findings: Orphans and abandoned infants were the most frequent enrollees (41%) in the program. While the program targeted these groups, it is unlikely that this is a true reflection of population demographics. Despite programmatic guidance, admission criteria were not consistently applied across programs. Thirty-four percent of infants were undernourished (weight for age Z score < - 2) at the time of admission. Defaulting accounted for 50% of all program exits and there was no follow-up of these children. Low data quality was a significant barrier. Conclusions: The design, implementation and magnitude of the 'baby tents' using RUIF was novel in response to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in emergencies and presented multiple challenges that should not be overlooked, including adherence to protocols and the adaption of emergency programs to existing programs. The implementation of IYCF programs should be closely monitored to ensure that they achieve the objectives set by the humanitarian community and national government. IYCF is an often overlooked component of emergency preparedness; however to improve response, generic protocols and pre-emergency training and preparedness should be established for humanitarian agencies.

Jefferds M.E.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mirkovic K.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Subedi G.R.,Child Health Division | Mebrahtu S.,Nutrition Section | And 2 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2015

Many countries implement micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes to improve the nutritional status of young children. Little is known about the predictors of MNP coverage for different delivery models. We describe MNP coverage of an infant and young child feeding and MNP intervention for children aged 6-23 months comparing two delivery models piloted in rural Nepal: distributing MNPs either by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or at health facilities (HFs). Cross-sectional household cluster surveys were conducted in four pilot districts among mothers of children 6-23 months after starting MNP distribution. FCHVs in each cluster were also surveyed. We used logistic regression to describe predictors of initial coverage (obtaining a batch of 60 MNP sachets) at 3 months and repeat coverage (≥2 times coverage among eligible children) at 15 months after project launch. At 15 months, initial and repeat coverage were higher in the FCHV model, although no differences were observed at 3 months. Attending an FCHV-led mothers' group meeting where MNP was discussed increased odds of any coverage in both models at 3 months and of repeat coverage in the HF model at 15 months. Perceiving ≥1 positive effects in the child increased odds of repeat coverage in both delivery models. A greater portion of FCHV volunteers from the FCHV model vs. the HF model reported increased burden at 3 and 15 months (not statistically significant). Designing MNP programmes that maximise coverage without overburdening the system can be challenging and more than one delivery model may be needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ayoya M.A.,Nutrition Section | Bendech M.A.,Child Survival and Development Section | Zagre N.M.,Asia Pacific Shared Services Center | Tchibindat F.,Child Survival and Development Section
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective: To review the prevalence, severity and determinants of anaemia among women in West and Central Africa (WCA) and raise awareness among policy makers and programme planners in the region. Design: Systematic descriptive review of data in the public domain of the ORC Macro MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys, national nutrition surveys, oral and technical communications at regional meetings, studies published in scientific journals, and WHO and UNICEF databases. Setting: West and Central Africa region. Subjects: Women of childbearing age. Results: The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant women is higher than 50 % and 40 %, respectively, in all countries. Within countries, this prevalence varies by living setting (rural v. urban), women's age and education. Across countries, socio-economic and climatic differences have no apparent association with the prevalence of anaemia among women. Several factors contribute either alone or jointly to the high rates of maternal anaemia in this region. These include widespread nutritional deficiencies; high incidence of infectious diseases; low access to and poor quality of health services; low literacy rates; ineffective design, implementation and evaluation of anaemia control programmes; and poverty. Conclusions: Addressing the multiple causes and minimizing the consequences of anaemia on maternal and child health and development in WCA require integrated multifactorial and multisectoral strategies. This also calls for unprecedented, historical and stronger political will and commitment that put adolescent girls and maternal health at the centre of the development agenda.

Pelletier D.,Cornell University | Haider R.,Training and Assistance for Health and Nutrition TAHN Foundation | Hajeebhoy N.,FHI 360 Alive and Thrive Project | Mangasaryan N.,Nutrition Section | And 2 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2013

Advocacy represents an intervention into complex, dynamic and highly contextual socio-political systems, in which strategies and tactics must be adjusted on a continual basis in light of rapidly changing conditions, reactions from actors and feedback. For this reason, the practice of advocacy is often considered more art than science. However, capacities and practices for advocacy can be strengthened by sharing and analysing experiences in varying contexts, deriving general principles and learning to adapt these principles to new contexts. Nutrition is a particular context for advocacy, but to date, there has been little systematic analysis of experiences. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and draw lessons from the practice of nutrition advocacy, especially in relation to stunting and complementary feeding, and suggest ways to strengthen capacities and practices in the future. The strategies and tactics, achievements and lessons learnt are described for three case studies: Uganda, Vietnam and Bangladesh. These cases, and experience from elsewhere, demonstrate that concerted, well-planned and well-implemented advocacy can bring significant achievements, even in short period of time. In light of the global and national attention being given to stunting reduction through the SUN (Scaling Up Nutrition) movement and other initiatives, there is now a need for much stronger investments in strategic and operational capacities for advocacy, including the human, organisational and financial resources for the advocacy and strategic communication themselves, as well as for monitoring and evaluation, supportive research and institutional capacity-building. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chopra M.,Health Section | Sharkey A.,Health Section | Dalmiya N.,Nutrition Section | Anthony D.,Policy | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Implementation of innovative strategies to improve coverage of evidence-based interventions, especially in the most marginalised populations, is a key focus of policy makers and planners aiming to improve child survival, health, and nutrition. We present a three-step approach to improvement of the effective coverage of essential interventions. First, we identify four different intervention delivery channels - ie, clinical or curative, outreach, community-based preventive or promotional, and legislative or mass media. Second, we classify which interventions' deliveries can be improved or changed within their channel or by switching to another channel. Finally, we do a meta-review of both published and unpublished reviews to examine the evidence for a range of strategies designed to overcome supply and demand bottlenecks to effective coverage of interventions that improve child survival, health, and nutrition. Although knowledge gaps exist, several strategies show promise for improving coverage of effective interventions - and, in some cases, health outcomes in children - including expanded roles for lay health workers, task shifting, reduction of financial barriers, increases in human-resource availability and geographical access, and use of the private sector. Policy makers and planners should be informed of this evidence as they choose strategies in which to invest their scarce resources.

Kumapley R.S.,Micronutrients Unit | Kupka R.,Micronutrients Unit | Dalmiya N.,Nutrition Section
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Global deworming programs aim to reach 75% of at-risk preschool-age children (pre-SAC) by 2020. The 2013 global pre-SAC deworming coverage initially published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was 23.9%, but this estimate inadequately captured deworming delivered through Child Health Day (CHD) platforms. Objective: To update global and regional coverage estimates of pre-SAC deworming in 2013 by supplementing data from the WHO Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission Control (PCT) databank with national CHD data. Methods: UNICEF country offices (n = 82) were mailed a questionnaire in July 2014 to report on official national biannual CHD deworming coverage as part of the global vitamin A supplementation coverage reporting mechanism. Coverage data obtained were validated and considered for inclusion in the PCT databank in a collaboration between UNICEF and WHO. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to update the number of pre-SAC reached and the number of treatments delivered. Results: Of the 47 countries that responded to the UNICEF pre-SAC deworming questionnaire, 73 data points from 39 countries were considered for inclusion into the WHO PCT databank. Of these, 21 new data points were from 12 countries were newly integrated into the WHO database. With this integration, deworming coverage among pre-SAC increased to 49.1%, representing an increase in the number of children reached and treatments administered from 63.7 million to 130.7 million and 94.7 million to 234.8 million, respectively. The updated databank comprised 98 mass deworming activities conducted in 55 countries, in which 80.4% of the global pre-SAC population requiring deworming reside. In all, 57 countries requiring deworming were not yet represented in the database. Conclusions: With the inclusion of CHD data, global deworming programs are on track to achieving global pre-SAC coverage targets. However, further efforts are needed to improve pre-SAC coverage reporting as well as to sustain and expand deworming delivery through CHDs and other platforms. © 2015 Kumapley et al.

Kramer M.,University of Gottingen | Kupka R.,Nutrition Section | Kupka R.,Harvard University | Subramanian S.V.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Although a strong biological basis exists for a role of iodine in somatic growth failure in childhood, this relation has not been previously studied on a large scale to our knowledge. Objective: We investigated if a general association exists between the household unavailability of iodized salt and child growth across countries. Design: We used 89 nationally representative, repeated, crosssectional and mutually comparable demographic and health surveys that were conducted between 1994 and 2012 across 46 low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed the data for the outcome variables of stunting (low height-for-age), underweight (low weightfor- age), wasting (low weight-for-height), and low birth weight in children aged between 0 and 59 mo at the time of the interview with the use of logistic regression models. Our samples consisted of 390,328 children for the stunting analysis, 397,080 children for the underweight analysis, 384,163 children for the wasting analysis, and 187,744 children for the low-birth-weight analysis. Models were adjusted for individual, maternal, and household covariates and fixed effects on the level of the primary sampling unit. Results: In the fully adjusted models, the unavailability of iodized salt was associated with 3% higher odds of being stunted (95% CI of ORs: 1.00, 1.06; P = 0.04), 5% higher odds of being underweight (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; P < 0.01), and 9% higher odds of low birth weight (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17; P = 0.01). When India was excluded from the sample, the association was only statistically significant (P = 0.05) for low birth weight. Conclusion: Although we did not establish causality in our analysis, the findings might indicate that the causal effect of iodized salt on child growth, if it exists, is most profound in utero and is not universally effective across all countries with respect to longer-run child-growth outcomes such as stunting and underweight. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

Nisar Y.B.,University of Sydney | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney | Mebrahtu S.,Nutrition Section | Paudyal N.,Nutrition Section
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation improves maternal anemia and poor pregnancy outcomes. Antenatal use of IFA supplements also has an effect on child survival. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of antenatal IFA supplements on the risk of childhood mortality in Nepal over a 15-y period from 1996 to 2011. Methods: Survival information of 12,891 singleton most recent live-born infants from pooled 2001, 2006, and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys was used. Primary outcomes were mortality indicators in children <5 y of age and the main exposure variable was use of IFA supplements. Data were analyzed by using STATA 13.1 (StataCorp) and were adjusted for the cluster sampling design. Analyses used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Antenatal use of IFA supplements significantly reduced the risk of early neonatal deaths by 45% [adjusted HR (aHR): 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.79] and total neonatal deaths by 42% (aHR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.85). Similarly, the risk of infant and under-5 mortality was significantly reduced by 32% and 48%, respectively. For mothers who started IFA at 1-4 mo of pregnancy and used 150-240 supplements, neonatal and under-5 mortality were significantly reduced by 55% (aHR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.85) and 57% (aHR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.78), respectively. Population attributable risk estimates found 15% of under-5 deaths were attributed to nonuse of IFA, and 29,000 under-5 deaths could be prevented in the next 5 y with universal IFA coverage. Conclusions: Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neonatal and under-5 deaths in Nepal. The greatest effect on child survival was found in women who started IFA early in pregnancy and took 150-240 supplements. Universal IFA coverage could improve neonatal and child survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

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