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Patel A.,Center for Clinical Epidemiology | Badhoniya N.,Center for Clinical Epidemiology | Khadse S.,Bj Medical College | Senarath U.,University of Colombo | And 11 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background. In India, poor feeding practices in early childhood contribute to the burden of malnutrition and infant and child mortality. Objective. To estimate infant and young child feeding indicators and determinants of selected feeding practices in India. Methods. The sample consisted of 20,108 children aged 0 to 23 months from the National Family Health Survey India 2005-06. Selected indicators were examined against a set of variables using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Only 23.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth, 99.2% had ever breastfed their infant, 89.8% were currently breastfeeding, and 14.8% were currently bottle-feeding. Among infants under 6 months of age, 46.4% were exclusively breastfed, and 56.7% of those aged 6 to 9 months received complementary foods. The risk factors for not exclusively breastfeeding were higher household wealth index quintiles (OR for richest = 2.03), delivery in a health facility (OR = 1.35), and living in the Northern region. Higher numbers of antenatal care visits were associated with increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding (OR for > 7 antenatal visits = 0.58). The rates of timely initiation of breastfeeding were higher among women who were better educated (OR for secondary education or above = 0.79), were working (OR = 0.79), made more antenatal clinic visits (OR for > 7 antenatal visits = 0.48), and were exposed to the radio (OR = 0.76). The rates were lower in women who were delivered by cesarean section (OR = 2.52). The risk factors for bottle-feeding included cesarean delivery (OR = 1.44), higher household wealth index quintiles (OR = 3.06), working by the mother (OR=1.29), higher maternal education level (OR=1.32), urban residence (OR=1.46), and absence of postnatal examination (OR=1.24). The rates of timely complementary feeding were higher for mothers who had more antenatal visits (OR=0.57), and for those who watched television (OR=0.75). Conclusions. Revitalization of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in health facilities is recommended. Targeted interventions may be necessary to improve infant feeding practices in mothers who reside in urban areas, are more educated, and are from wealthier households. © 2010, The United Nations University. Source


Mihrshahi S.,Queensland University of Technology | Kabir I.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Roy S.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Agho K.E.,University of Western Sydney | And 11 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background. In Bangladesh, poor infant and young child feeding practices are contributing to the burden of infectious diseases and malnutrition. Objective. To estimate the determinants of selected feeding practices and key indicators of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Bangladesh. Methods. The sample included 2,482 children aged O to 23 months from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey of 2004. The World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended infant and young child feeding indicators were estimated, and selected feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household-, and community-level variables using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Only 27.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth, 99.9% had ever breastfed their infants, 97.3% were currently breastfeeding, and 22.4% were currently bottle-feeding. Among infants under 6 months of age, 42.5% were exclusively breastfed, and among those aged 6 to 9 months, 62.3% received complementary foods in addition to breastmilk. Among the risk factors for an infant not being exclusively breastfed were higher socioeconomic status, higher maternal education, and living in the Dhaka region. Higher birth order and female sex were associated with increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding of infants under 6 months of age. The risk factors for bottle-feeding were similar and included having a partner with a higher educational level (OR = 2.17), older maternal age (OR for age > 35 years = 2.32), and being in the upper wealth quintiles (OR for the richest = 3.43). Urban mothers were at higher risk for not initiating breastfeeding within the first hour after birth (OR = 1.61). Those who made three to six visits to the antenatal clinic were at lower risk for not initiating breastfeeding within the first hour (OR = 0.61). The rate of initiating breastfeeding within the first hour was higher in mothers from richer households (OR = 0.37). Conclusions. Most breastfeeding indicators in Bangladesh were below acceptable levels. Breastfeeding promotion programs in Bangladesh need nationwide application because of the low rates of appropriate infant feeding indicators, but they should also target women who have the main risk factors, i.e., working mothers living in urban areas (particularly in Dhaka). © 2010, The United Nations University. Source


Senarath U.,University of Colombo | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney | Godakandage S.S.R.,Family Health Bureau | Jayawickrama H.,Family Health Bureau | And 12 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background. Poor feeding practices in early childhood contribute to the burden of childhood malnutrition and morbidity. Objective. To estimate the key indicators of breastfeeding and complementary feeding and the determinants of selected feeding practices in Sri Lanka. Methods. The sample consisted of 1,127 children aged 0 to 23 months from the Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey 2000. The key infant feeding indicators were estimated and selected indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household-, and community-level variables using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Breastfeeding was initiated within the first hour after birth in 56.3% of infants, 99.7% had ever been breastfed, 85.0% were currently being breastfed, and 27.2% were being bottle-fed. Of infants under 6 months of age, 60.6% were fully breastfed, and of those aged 6 to 9 months, 93.4% received complementary foods. The likelihood of not initiating breastfeeding within the first hour after birth was higher for mothers who underwent cesarean delivery (OR = 3.23) and those who were not visited by a Public Health Midwife at home during pregnancy (OR = 1.81). The rate of full breastfeeding was significantly lower among mothers who did not receive postnatal home visits by a Public Health Midwife. Bottlefeeding rates were higher among infants whose mothers had ever been employed (OR = 1.86), lived in a metropolitan area (OR = 3.99), or lived in the South-Central Hill country (OR = 3.11) and were lower among infants of mothers with secondary education (OR = 0.27). Infants from the urban (OR = 8.06) and tea estate (OR = 12.63) sectors were less likely to receive timely complementary feeding than rural infants. Conclusions. Antenatal and postnatal contacts with Public Health Midwives were associated with improved breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding promotion strategies should specifically focus on the estate and urban or metropolitan communities. © 2010, The United Nations University. Source


Senarath U.,University of Colombo | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney | Roy S.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Kabir I.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 11 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN) was established in 2007 to foster and coordinate a research partnership among South Asian and international research groups interested in infant and young child feeding. SAIFRN has brought together a mix of researchers and program managers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka together with international partners from Australia. As the first activity, SAIFRN conducted a series of analyses using Demographic and Health Surveys of Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and the National Family Health Survey of India. The results highlight that most indicators of infant and young child feeding in these four countries have not reached the targeted levels. The rates vary considerably by country, and the factors associated with poor feeding practices were not always consistent across countries. Driven by the ultimate goal of improved child survival in the region, SAIFRN wishes to expand its partnerships with governmental and nongovernmental organizations that share common interests both within and outside the South Asia region. In the future, SAIFRN hopes to provide more opportunities to researchers in the region to improve their skills by participating in capacity-building programs in collaboration with international partner institutions, and looks forward to liaising with potential donors to support such activities. © 2010, The United Nations University. Source


Pandey S.,Khan Research Laboratories | Tiwari K.,Nepal Institute of Health Science | Senarath U.,University of Colombo | Agho K.E.,University of Western Sydney | And 11 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

Background. Childhood undernutrition and mortality are high in Nepal, and therefore interventions on infant and young child feeding practices deserve high priority. Objective. To estimate infant and young child feeding indicators and the determinants of selected feeding practices. Methods. The sample consisted of 1,906 children aged 0 to 23 months from the Demographic and Health Survey 2006. Selected indicators were examined against a set of variables using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Breastfeeding was initiated within the first hour after birth in 35.4% of children, 99.5% were ever breastfed, 98.1% were currently breastfed, and 3.5% were bottle-fed. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants under 6 months of age was 53.1%, and the rate of timely complementary feeding among those 6 to 9 months of age was 74.7%. Mothers who made antenatal clinic visits were at a higher risk for no exclusive breastfeeding than those who made no visits. Mothers who lived in the mountains were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour after birth and to introduce complementary feeding at 6 to 9 months of age, but less likely to exclusively breastfeed. Cesarean deliveries were associated with delay in timely initiation of breastfeeding. Higher rates of complementary feeding at 6 to 9 months were also associated with mothers with better education and those above 35 years of age. Risk factors for bottle-feeding included living in urban areas and births attended by trained health personnel. Conclusions. Most breastfeeding indicators in Nepal are below the expected levels to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Breastfeeding promotion strategies should specifically target mothers who have more contact with the health care delivery system, while programs targeting the entire community should be continued. © 2010, The United Nations University. Source

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