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Leatherhead, United Kingdom

Cifelli C.J.,Nutrition Research | Maples I.S.,National Dairy Council | Miller G.D.,Urbana University
Nutrition Today

Milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet because they provide a wealth of nutritional benefits. However, unpasteurized milk or dairy products can be excellent vehicles for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, which have been scientifically shown to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in individuals who consume unpasteurized milk products. As a result, milk produced in the United States undergoes extensive and rigorous safety and quality tests before it enters the market place, ensuring that US milk and dairy products are among the safest and most regulated foods in the world. This article describes the process of milk pasteurization and the dangers associated with unpasteurized milk consumption and provides evidence that there is no nutritional advantage to consuming unpasteurized milk. Copyright © 20 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Grassby T.,Kings College London | Picout D.R.,Kings College London | Mandalari G.,UK Institute of Food Research | Mandalari G.,Messina University | And 7 more authors.
Food and Function

The cell walls (dietary fibre) of edible plants, which consist of mainly non-starch polysaccharides, play an important role in regulating nutrient bioaccessibility (release) during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have shown that structurally-intact cell walls hinder lipid release from the parenchyma cells of almond seeds. A theoretical model was developed to predict the bioaccessibility of lipid using simple geometry and data on cell dimensions and particle size for calculating the number of ruptured cells in cut almond cubes. Cubes (2 mm) and finely-ground flour of low and high lipid bioaccessibility, respectively, were prepared from almond cotyledons. The model predictions were compared with data from in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion of almond cubes and flour. The model showed that lipid bioaccessibility is highly dependent on particle size and cell diameter. Only a modified version of the model (the Extended Theoretical Model, ETM), in which the cells at the edges and corners were counted once only, was acceptable for the full range of particle sizes. Lipid release values predicted from the ETM were 5.7% for almond cubes and 42% for almond flour. In vitro digestion of cubes and flour showed that lipid released from ruptured cells was available for hydrolysis and resulted in lipid losses of 9.9 and 39.3%, respectively. The ETM shows considerable potential for predicting lipid release in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Further work is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of this model to accurately predict nutrient bioaccessibility in a broad range of edible plants. This journal is © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Pombo-Rodrigues S.,Nutrition Research | Calame W.,StatistiCal BV | Re R.,Nutrition Research
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of eggs consumed for lunch on satiety, satiation and subsequent energy intake at the next meal. Thirty-one healthy male and female subjects participated in a randomized, three-way, crossover study. Following consumption of a standard breakfast, participants were asked to consume three isocaloric test lunches: omelette, jacket potato and chicken sandwich. Subjective measures of satiety were recorded using visual analog scales at regular intervals throughout the day. Energy intake at the next meal was assessed 4 h after lunch with an ad libitum meal. The egg lunch showed a significantly stronger satiating effect compared with the jacket potato meal. No effect on energy intake was seen. These data indicate that consumption of an omelette meal consumed at lunch could increase satiety to a greater extent than a carbohydrate meal and may facilitate reduction of energy consumption between meals. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Brunger L.,University of Sussex | Smith A.,University of Sussex | Re R.,Nutrition Research | Wickham M.,Nutrition Research | And 3 more authors.

The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77kcal) and high energy (HE: 274kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chajes V.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Chajes V.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Biessy C.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Byrnes G.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 50 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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