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Cifelli C.J.,Nutrition Research | Maples I.S.,National Dairy Council | Miller G.D.,Urbana University
Nutrition Today | Year: 2010

Milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet because they provide a wealth of nutritional benefits. However, unpasteurized milk or dairy products can be excellent vehicles for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, which have been scientifically shown to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in individuals who consume unpasteurized milk products. As a result, milk produced in the United States undergoes extensive and rigorous safety and quality tests before it enters the market place, ensuring that US milk and dairy products are among the safest and most regulated foods in the world. This article describes the process of milk pasteurization and the dangers associated with unpasteurized milk consumption and provides evidence that there is no nutritional advantage to consuming unpasteurized milk. Copyright © 20 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LA JOLLA, CA - December 13, 2016 - Diet composition around the time of pregnancy may influence whether offspring become obese, according to a new study using animal models at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI). "Your diet itself matters, not just whether you are gaining excess weight or developing gestational diabetes," said TSRI Associate Professor Eric Zorrilla, who led the study in collaboration with Tim R. Nagy of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Barry E. Levin of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center of East Orange, New Jersey, and Rutgers University. In fact, the researchers found that giving females a typical American, or Western, diet appeared to set the next generation up for lifelong obesity issues. This work was published recently in the American Journal of Physiology and featured in APSselect, a collection of the best research papers from all journals published by the American Physiological Society. It's Not Just about Weight The researchers made this discovery by studying two lines of rats, one selectively bred to be obesity-resistant to a high-fat diet and one bred to be unusually vulnerable. Rats from each group were fed either a diet with the same overall fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate and protein levels as a typical Western diet, or a lower-fat, higher-grain control diet. The scientists found that female rats given a Western diet in the weeks leading up to pregnancy, during pregnancy and during nursing had offspring more prone to obesity at birth, during early adolescence and--many months later--through adulthood. This occurred even if the mothers themselves did not overeat and maintained a healthy weight, body fat and insulin status. Zorrilla said the results were surprising because, whereas previous studies had shown that overweight mothers were more likely to have overweight offspring, the new findings suggest that diet alone can make a difference independent of weight gain. The Western diet seemed to set in motion a metabolic "program" that lasted throughout the rat's life. Although these rats slimmed down during puberty and early adulthood, they still showed a lower basal metabolic rate (less energy expended at while rest) and higher food intake during that time, which led to a return of obesity in mid-adulthood. "What we found interesting was that you sometimes see the same thing in humans, when a kid goes through a growth spurt," said study first author Jen Frihauf, who recently completed her PhD through the University of California, San Diego, while working in the Zorrilla lab at TSRI. The researchers also spotted an interesting difference in the effects of the Western diet between the obesity-vulnerable and obesity-resistant lines: in females, the diet impaired the reproduction of the obesity vulnerable lines. Significantly fewer of females were able to reproduce, and those that did reproduce had fewer offspring. "This wasn't the focus of the study, but it supports the idea that a Western diet promotes infertility in mothers vulnerable to diet-induced obesity," said Zorrilla. The researchers also identified elevated levels of several molecules, such as insulin and hormones called leptin and adiponectin, starting at birth in both the Western diet and genetically vulnerable offspring. This hormone profile may serve as an early biomarker for detecting obesity risk. The Takeaway for Moms: Better Nutrition Research is ongoing into which aspects of a Western diet trigger these effects--and the molecular changes in the offspring responsible for them. Zorrilla said the findings should raise awareness of the importance of a healthy pre- and post-natal diet. For example, doctors may want to discuss nutrition with all women who are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant, not just those already overweight. "Doctors often use weight gain as a hallmark of a healthy pregnancy," said Frihauf. "But we realized there was something going on in utero that wasn't detectable in the mother's weight." Frihauf added that few pregnant women, even in the United States, eat a high-fat, high-sugar diet all day, every day. "We're not trying to tell pregnant women not to occasionally splurge on a piece of cake," she said. Studies have also shown that paternal diet, through "epigenetic" mechanisms that control how genes are expressed, can affect obesity risk in offspring, added Zorrilla, so nutritional information may be valuable for potential fathers as well. In addition to Zorrilla, Nagy, Levin and Frihauf, the study, "Maternal Western Diet Increases Adiposity Even in Male Offspring of Obesity-Resistant Rat Dams: Early Endocrine Risk Markers," was authored by Éva M. Fekete, previous of TSRI and now at The University of Wisconsin-Madison. This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants R01DK-070118, R01DK-30066, R01DK-076896, F31DA026708-01A2, R21DK-077616, P30DK-056336 and P30DK-079626) and the Research Service of the VA. The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is one of the world's largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. TSRI is internationally recognized for its contributions to science and health, including its role in laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. An institution that evolved from the Scripps Metabolic Clinic founded by philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps in 1924, the institute now employs more than 2,500 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists--including two Nobel laureates and 20 members of the National Academy of Science, Engineering or Medicine--work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards PhD degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. For more information, see http://www. .


News Article | November 30, 2015
Site: www.realwire.com

30th November: Fonterra today announced that commercial samples of NZMP Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS) will be available early in the new year. Fonterra’s new partnership with leading UK dairy company, Dairy Crest, means it can now offer the specialty paediatric ingredient to food manufacturers globally. NZMP GOS will give infant formula manufacturers the ability to offer additional consumer benefits. GOS is known to support digestive comfort [1] and improve mineral absorption [2]. It’s anticipated that European and Chinese infant formula manufacturers will be among the first to start using NZMP GOS. Fonterra Regional Director Ingredients Europe Middle East/Africa Han Huistra says this innovative ingredient is an extension of the NZMP specialty ingredients portfolio for infant nutrition. “Combined with Fonterra’s expertise in paediatric nutrition, the ever growing portfolio of NZMP ingredients gives manufacturers even more flexibility to fine tune their products.” Mr Huistra says adding GOS to the NZMP portfolio means customers can benefit from Fonterra’s size, scale and ability to supply globally. “We are delighted to add this important ingredient to our portfolio of specialised NZMP ingredient offerings. A new facility brings the very real advantages of being able to capitalise on latest control systems and equipment to consistently produce high quality products. What makes this exciting is that traceability and supply versatility have also been designed as key traits for this business launch,” says Mr Huistra. Dairy Crest Managing Director Functional Ingredients Richard Jones says: “By leveraging our expertise in the manufacture of dairy products, and Fonterra’s global reach and supply capabilities, we are delighted to successfully deliver high quality nutritional products to meet growing market demands. It is a testament to the strong Fonterra-Dairy Crest partnership and our ability to meet the desire globally for quality nutrition.” Once production is running at full scale, Dairy Crest will manufacture 10,000 MT of GOS annually and the product will be marketed and sold under the NZMP brand utilising Fonterra’s global distribution network. NZMP GOS will be produced at Dairy Crest’s Davidstow facility in Cornwall, United Kingdom. Dairy Crest has invested £20 million to set up a purpose-built, state-of-the-art ingredients facility to produce GOS. “The heritage of excellence in dairy and quality manufacture makes Dairy Crest’s GOS facility investment a natural fit for Fonterra and our dairy ingredients brand, NZMP” says Mr Huistra. [1] Ashley, C. et al., 2012 Nutrition Journal 11, 38 [2] Chonan, O and Watanuki, M., 1996. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 66(3), 244-249. About GOS: Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS) are food ingredients with prebiotic properties, widely recognised to be bifidogenic, and to promote the growth of a host of beneficial gut bacteria in babies. GOS is derived from bovine milk, and recognised by many as a closer match to Human Milk Oligosaccharides compared to plant derived alternates. It is therefore the preferred pre-biotic for many infant formula brand owners. For further information contact: Christine Reilly, Hotwire PR on behalf of Fonterra phone: +44 (0)207 608 2500 About Fonterra Fonterra is a global leader in dairy nutrition – the preferred supplier of dairy ingredients to many of the world’s leading food companies. It is also a market leader with its own consumer dairy brands in New Zealand and Australia, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Fonterra is a farmer-owned co-operative and the largest processor of milk in the world. It is one of the world’s largest investors in dairy research and innovation drawing on generations of dairy expertise to produce more than two million tonnes of dairy ingredients, value added dairy ingredients, specialty ingredients and consumer products for 140 markets. About NZMP NZMP is the dairy ingredients brand of Fonterra. Trusted globally, NZMP ingredients are sold in more than 100 countries and can be found at the heart of some of the world’s most famous food and nutrition brands. NZMP has the broadest range of ingredients in the dairy industry, providing hundreds of solutions to meet the needs of customers every day. Backed by Fonterra’s global market expertise, world-class processing and leading quality standards, NZMP ingredients deliver real market advantage, trusted for their high performance and exceptional quality. About Dairy Crest Dairy Crest, home of the “Cathedral City” brand (no 1 UK consumer cheese brand) are the UK’s leading producer of quality cheese and whey. Their recent investment now aligns whey from their integrated milk pool into high quality infant formula ingredients. Together with technology partner Fayrefield, Dairy Crest is also leveraging their site manufacturing excellence to produce GOS.


Hull S.,Nutrition Research | Re R.,Nutrition Research | Chambers L.,University of Sussex | Echaniz A.,Nutrition Research | Wickham M.S.J.,Nutrition Research
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Purpose: To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. Method: On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Results: Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Conclusion: Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day. © 2014, The Author(s).


Brunger L.,University of Sussex | Smith A.,University of Sussex | Re R.,Nutrition Research | Wickham M.,Nutrition Research | And 3 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2015

The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77kcal) and high energy (HE: 274kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | World Sugar Research Organisation, University of Sussex and Nutrition Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of obesity (2005) | Year: 2016

Consumption of high-energy beverages has been implicated as a risk factor for weight gain, yet why nutrients ingested as beverages fail to generate adequate satiety remains unclear. In general, consumers do not expect drinks to be satiating, but drinks generate greater satiety when their sensory characteristics imply they may be filling. These findings challenge traditional bottom-up models of how gut-based satiety signals modify behaviour to suggest that beliefs at the point of ingestion modify gut-based satiety signalling.Healthy volunteers (n=23) consumed four different beverages, combining an overt sensory manipulation (thin, low sensory (LS) or thicker and more creamy, enhanced sensory (ES)) and covert nutrient manipulation (low energy (LE), 78kcal; high energy (HE), 267kcal) on different days. Effects on satiety were assessed through rated appetite and levels of glucose, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholesystokinin (CCK) recorded periodically over 90min, and through intake at an ad libitum test lunch.Intake at the test lunch and rated appetite were both altered by both the sensory and nutrient manipulations, with lowest intake and greatest suppression of hunger post-drink in the ESHE condition. Insulin increased more after HE than LE drinks, and after ES than LS drinks, whereas PP levels were higher after ES than LS versions. CCK levels only increased after the ESHE drink.These data confirm acute sensitivity of satiety after consuming a drink both to the sensory characteristics and nutrient content of the drink, and suggest that this may be, at least in part, due to top-down modulation of release of satiety-related gut hormones.


Herbalife, a global nutrition company, today announced the launch of its first Nutrition Research and Development Labin India, in partnership with Syngene, Asia's leading contract research and manufacturing organization.


Pombo-Rodrigues S.,Nutrition Research | Calame W.,StatistiCal BV | Re R.,Nutrition Research
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of eggs consumed for lunch on satiety, satiation and subsequent energy intake at the next meal. Thirty-one healthy male and female subjects participated in a randomized, three-way, crossover study. Following consumption of a standard breakfast, participants were asked to consume three isocaloric test lunches: omelette, jacket potato and chicken sandwich. Subjective measures of satiety were recorded using visual analog scales at regular intervals throughout the day. Energy intake at the next meal was assessed 4 h after lunch with an ad libitum meal. The egg lunch showed a significantly stronger satiating effect compared with the jacket potato meal. No effect on energy intake was seen. These data indicate that consumption of an omelette meal consumed at lunch could increase satiety to a greater extent than a carbohydrate meal and may facilitate reduction of energy consumption between meals. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.


Hull S.,Nutrition Research | Re R.,Nutrition Research | Tiihonen K.,DuPont Company | Viscione L.,DuPont Company | Wickham M.,Nutrition Research
Appetite | Year: 2012

Polydextrose (Litesse®, DuPont) is a polysaccharide that is partially fermented in the colon. Evidence suggests that polydextrose increases satiety when consumed over several weeks; however studies assessing its acute effects on satiety are lacking. This study therefore aimed to assess the impact of different doses of polydextrose on satiety and energy intake at subsequent meals during a test day. Three yogurt-based drinks containing different amounts of polydextrose (0, 6.25 and 12.5. g) were tested using a randomised, single-blinded, placebo controlled, cross-over design. Thirty-four healthy male and female volunteers were provided with a standard breakfast, then consumed the test product mid-morning, 90. min before an ad libitum lunch, which was followed by an ad libitum dinner. Visual analogue scales were used to measure subjective ratings of appetite, liking and discomfort. Consuming 6.25 and 12.5. g polydextrose increased satiety and decreased appetite compared to control immediately after consumption. A reduction in energy intake (218.8. kJ) at lunchtime was observed for 12.5. g polydextrose. This reduction in energy intake was not compensated for at dinner. This study suggests that polydextrose may aid in increasing satiety feelings post consumption and also reduce energy intake as a result. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Nutrition Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses.On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days.Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack.Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

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