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Messina M.,Loma Linda University | Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

During the past 20 years, a remarkable amount of research into the health effects of soy consumption has been conducted, which in large part can be attributed to the presence of isoflavones in the soybean. Isoflavones first came to the attention of the scientific community in the 1940s because of fertility problems observed in sheep grazing on a type of isoflavone-rich clover. In the 1950s, as a result of their estrogenic effects in rodents, isoflavones were studied as possible growth promoters for use by the animal feed industry, although shortly thereafter, it was shown that isoflavones could also function as antiestrogens. Despite this early work, it was not until the 1990s, largely because of research sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, that the role of soyfoods in disease prevention began to receive widespread attention. Subsequently, isoflavones and soyfoods were being studied for their ability to alleviate hot flashes and inhibit bone loss in postmenopausal women. In 1995, soy protein attracted worldwide attention for its ability to lower cholesterol. At this same time, isoflavones began to be widely discussed as potential alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. In 2002, it was hypothesized that individuals possessing the intestinal bacteria capable of converting the soybean isoflavone daidzein into the isoflavan equol were more likely to benefit from soy intake. More recently, in vitro and animal research has raised questions about the safety of isoflavone exposure for certain subsets of the population, although the human data are largely inconsistent with these concerns. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Messina M.,Loma Linda University | Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc. | Messina V.,Loma Linda University | Jenkins D.J.A.,University of Toronto
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Over the past 20 years, the popularity of soyafoods has increased in part because of research suggesting that these foods convey health benefits independent of their nutrient content. For example, in 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a health-claim for soyafoods and CHD based on the hypocholesterolaemic effects of soya protein. However, soyafoods have become controversial in recent years because of concerns that their uniquely rich phyto-oestrogen (isoflavone) content may cause untoward effects in some individuals. Most notable in this regard is the concern that soyafoods are contraindicated for breast cancer patients and women at high risk of developing this disease. Furthermore, the hypocholesterolaemic effects of soya protein have been challenged. However, the results of recently published meta-analyses indicate that soya protein directly lowers circulating LDL-cholesterol levels by approximately 4 %. There is also intriguing evidence that soyafoods reduce CHD risk independent of their effects on lipid levels. In regard to the breast cancer controversy, recently published clinical and epidemiological data do not support observations in rodents that soyabean isoflavones increase breast cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, isoflavone exposure does not adversely affect breast tissue density or breast cell proliferation. Furthermore, both US and Chinese prospective epidemiological studies show that post-diagnosis soya consumption is associated with an improved prognosis. Therefore, soyafoods should be considered by women as healthy foods to include in diets aimed at reducing the risk of CHD regardless of their breast cancer status. © 2011 The Authors.


Beavers D.P.,Wake forest University | Beavers K.M.,Wake forest University | Miller M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Stamey J.,Baylor University | Messina M.J.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Background and Aims: To determine whether and to what degree exposure to isoflavone-containing soy products affects EF. Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent coronary heart disease risk factor and a strong predictor of long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Data on the effects of exposure to isoflavone-containing soy products on EF are conflicting. Methods and Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PUBMED database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) inclusively through August 21, 2009 on RCTs using the keywords: soy, isoflavone, phytoestrogen, EF, flow mediated vasodilation, and FMD. A Bayesian meta-analysis was conducted to provide a comprehensive account of the effect of isoflavone-containing soy products on EF, as measured by FMD. A total of 17 RCTs were selected as having sufficient data for study inclusion. The overall mean absolute change in FMD (95% Bayesian CI) for isoflavone-containing soy product interventions was 1.15% (-0.52, 2.75). When the effects of separate interventions were considered, the treatment effect for isolated isoflavones was 1.98% (0.07, 3.97) compared to 0.72% (-1.39, 2.90) for isoflavone-containing soy protein. The models were not improved when considering study-specific effects such as cuff measurement location, prescribed dietary modification, and impaired baseline FMD. Conclusions: Cumulative evidence from the RCTs included in this meta-analysis indicates that exposure to soy isoflavones can modestly, but significantly, improve EF as measured by FMD. Therefore, exposure to isoflavone supplements may beneficially influence vascular health. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Setchell K.D.R.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Setchell K.D.R.,University of Cincinnati | Brown N.M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Zhao X.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Human and animal studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the effect of soy isoflavones on breast cancer risk. This may be due to differences in isoflavone metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether soy isoflavone phase II metabolism differs between humans and rodents. Design: Circulating total and unconjugated isoflavone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry in plasma samples from 7 separate studies: 1) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in 3 strains of mice fed commercial soy-containing diets; 2) in Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged with genistein; 3) in healthy adults who consumed single servings of soy nuts, soy milk, and tempeh; 4) in healthy adults subchronically given soy milk; 5) in healthy women orally administered 50 mg genistein; 6) in healthy women orally administered 20 mg pure S-(-)equol; and 7) in 6-mo-old infants fed soy infant formula and later, at age 3 y, a soy germ isoflavone supplement. Results: The proportion of unconjugated genistein in plasma from adults and infants who consumed different soy foods, pure genistein, or an isoflavone supplement was <1% in steady state and <2% at peak concentrations. By contrast, rodents fed soy-containing diets conjugate isoflavones less efficiently. The plasma percentages of unconjugated genistein concentrations in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6, nude, and transgenic AngptL4B6 mice were 4.0 ± 0.6%, 4.6 ± 0.6%, 11.6 ± 0%, and 30.1 ± 4.3%, respectively, which represent 20, 23, 58, and 150 times that in humans. Conclusion: The markedly higher circulating concentrations of biologically active (unconjugated) genistein in certain strains of mice cast doubt on the value of the use of these rodents for gaining insight into the effects of isoflavones in humans, especially with regard to the effects on breast tissue. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alphalinolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the diet can contribute to the health of postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Messina V.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
Forschende Komplementarmedizin | Year: 2016

The relationship between soy food intake and breast cancer has been rigorously investigated for more than 25 years. The identification of isoflavones as possible chemopreventive agents helped fuel this line of investigation. These diphenolic compounds, which are found in uniquely-rich amounts in soy beans, possess both estrogen-dependent and -independent properties that potentially inhibit the development of breast cancer. Observational studies show that among Asian women higher soy consumption is associated with an approximate 30% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that for soy to reduce breast cancer risk consumption must occur early in life, that is during childhood and/or adolescence. Despite the interest in the role of soy in reducing breast cancer risk concerns have arisen that soy foods, because they contain isoflavones, may increase the likelihood of high-risk women developing breast cancer and worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, extensive clinical and epidemiologic data show these concerns to be unfounded. Clinical trials consistently show that isoflavone intake does not adversely affect markers of breast cancer risk, including mammographic density and cell proliferation. Furthermore, prospective epidemiologic studies involving over 11,000 women from the USA and China show that postdiagnosis soy intake statistically significantly reduces recurrence and improves survival. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Copyright: All rights reserved.


Trademark
Nutrition Matters Inc. | Date: 2013-10-31

Newsletters; newsletters in the field of nutrition; cards; nutrition education cards; brochures; pamphlets; leaflets; bookmarks; posters; bulletin board kits; bulletin board kits consisting of printed materials and posters; flipcharts; stickers; transfers; books; booklets; photography; photographic prints; photos; photo cards; tear-off pads, sheets; coloring books; note pads; story books; story books for children; picture books; curricula in the field of nutrition; lesson plans; bags; re-positionable stickers.


Trademark
Nutrition Matters Inc. | Date: 2016-08-26

Downloadable electronic newsletters in the field of health and nutrition, excluding health and nutrition regarding pets. Printed educational materials in the field of health and nutrition, excluding health and nutrition regarding pets. Providing information in the field of nutrition; Providing a web site featuring information on health and nutrition, excluding health and nutrition regarding pets.


Trademark
Nutrition Matters Inc. | Date: 2016-09-08

Printed educational materials in the field of health and nutrition for infants and toddlers through age 5.

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