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Messina V.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alphalinolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the diet can contribute to the health of postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Messina M.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
Forschende Komplementarmedizin | Year: 2016

The relationship between soy food intake and breast cancer has been rigorously investigated for more than 25 years. The identification of isoflavones as possible chemopreventive agents helped fuel this line of investigation. These diphenolic compounds, which are found in uniquely-rich amounts in soy beans, possess both estrogen-dependent and -independent properties that potentially inhibit the development of breast cancer. Observational studies show that among Asian women higher soy consumption is associated with an approximate 30% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that for soy to reduce breast cancer risk consumption must occur early in life, that is during childhood and/or adolescence. Despite the interest in the role of soy in reducing breast cancer risk concerns have arisen that soy foods, because they contain isoflavones, may increase the likelihood of high-risk women developing breast cancer and worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, extensive clinical and epidemiologic data show these concerns to be unfounded. Clinical trials consistently show that isoflavone intake does not adversely affect markers of breast cancer risk, including mammographic density and cell proliferation. Furthermore, prospective epidemiologic studies involving over 11,000 women from the USA and China show that postdiagnosis soy intake statistically significantly reduces recurrence and improves survival. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Copyright: All rights reserved. Source


Hamilton-Reeves J.M.,University of Minnesota | Vazquez G.,University of Minnesota | Duval S.J.,University of Minnesota | Phipps W.R.,University of Rochester | And 3 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine whether isoflavones exert estrogen-like effects in men by lowering bioavailable T through evaluation of the effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free T, and free androgen index (FAI) in men. Design: PubMed and CAB Abstracts databases were searched through July 1, 2008, with use of controlled vocabulary specific to the databases, such as soy, isoflavones, genistein, phytoestrogens, red clover, androgen, testosterone, and SHBG. Peer-reviewed studies published in English were selected if [1] adult men consumed soy foods, isolated soy protein, or isoflavone extracts (from soy or red clover) and [2] circulating T, SHBG, free T, or calculated FAI was assessed. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Isoflavone exposure was abstracted directly from studies. Main Outcome Measure(s): Fifteen placebo-controlled treatment groups with baseline and ending measures were analyzed. In addition, 32 reports involving 36 treatment groups were assessed in simpler models to ascertain the results. Result(s): No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model. Conclusion(s): The results of this meta-analysis suggest that neither soy foods nor isoflavone supplements alter measures of bioavailable T concentrations in men. © 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Source


Beavers D.P.,Wake forest University | Beavers K.M.,Wake forest University | Miller M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Stamey J.,Baylor University | Messina M.J.,Nutrition Matters Inc.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Background and Aims: To determine whether and to what degree exposure to isoflavone-containing soy products affects EF. Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent coronary heart disease risk factor and a strong predictor of long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Data on the effects of exposure to isoflavone-containing soy products on EF are conflicting. Methods and Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PUBMED database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) inclusively through August 21, 2009 on RCTs using the keywords: soy, isoflavone, phytoestrogen, EF, flow mediated vasodilation, and FMD. A Bayesian meta-analysis was conducted to provide a comprehensive account of the effect of isoflavone-containing soy products on EF, as measured by FMD. A total of 17 RCTs were selected as having sufficient data for study inclusion. The overall mean absolute change in FMD (95% Bayesian CI) for isoflavone-containing soy product interventions was 1.15% (-0.52, 2.75). When the effects of separate interventions were considered, the treatment effect for isolated isoflavones was 1.98% (0.07, 3.97) compared to 0.72% (-1.39, 2.90) for isoflavone-containing soy protein. The models were not improved when considering study-specific effects such as cuff measurement location, prescribed dietary modification, and impaired baseline FMD. Conclusions: Cumulative evidence from the RCTs included in this meta-analysis indicates that exposure to soy isoflavones can modestly, but significantly, improve EF as measured by FMD. Therefore, exposure to isoflavone supplements may beneficially influence vascular health. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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