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Battle Creek, MI, United States

Nicklas T.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | O'Neil C.E.,Louisiana State University | Fulgoni Iii V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods. 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results: The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions: Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. © 2014 Nicklas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fulgoni V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC | Quann E.E.,National Dairy Research Institute
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks) consumption trends in children <1-5 years of age. Methods. Data from individuals ages <1-5 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1976-1980, 1988-1994 and 2001-2006 were used to assess beverage consumption and associated calorie and nutrient intakes. Results: During the NHANES 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 periods, approximately 84-85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001-2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p < 0.001). Fruit juice consumption increased dramatically during NHANES 2001-2006 to more than 50% of the population compared to about 30% in the older surveys (p < 0.001). No significant changes were observed in fruit drink intake across all three decades with 35-37% of this population consuming fruit drinks. At least 30% of children consumed soft drinks. Milk was the largest beverage calorie contributor in all three decades surveyed and was the primary contributor of calcium (52-62%), phosphorus (37-42%), magnesium (27-28%), and potassium (32-37%). Fruit juice and fruit drinks each provided 8-10% of calories with soft drinks providing 5-6% of calories. Fruit juice was an important provider of potassium (16-19%) and magnesium (11%). Fruit drinks provided less than 5% of nutrients examined and soft drinks provided very little of the nutrients evaluated. Conclusions: Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk. © 2012 Fulgoni and Quann; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants $2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Barr S.I.,University of British Columbia | Difrancesco L.,Source Nutrition | Fulgoni V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Few studies have assessed the associations between breakfast intake and nutrient adequacy [where inadequacy reflects prevalence of usual intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) and potential excess reflects the prevalence above the tolerable upper intake level (UL)]. This study examined associations among breakfast, nutrient intakes, and nutrient adequacy in Canadian adults. Respondents aged≥19 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 19,913)were classif ed as breakfast nonconsumers (11%), ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfast consumers (20%), or other breakfast consumers (69%). Nutrient intakes from food (24-h recall) and the prevalence of usual intakes below the EAR and above the UL from food alone and from food plus supplements were compared by breakfast group. Usual intake distributions were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Breakfast consumers, and to a greater extent RTEC breakfast consumers, had significantly higher intakes of fiber and several vitamins and minerals than breakfast nonconsumers. Compared with nonconsumers, RTEC and other breakfast consumers had significantly lower prevalences below the EARs for vitamin A and magnesium. The prevalences below the EARs of these nutrients and calcium, thiamin,vitamin D, and iron were significantly lower with RTEC breakfasts than with other breakfasts. Similar patterns were observed from food alone compared with food plus supplements. Breakfast consumption did not affect prevalence above the UL based on food sources, although based on food plus supplements, breakfast consumers had slightly higher proportions that were above the UL than nonconsumers for several nutrients. Breakfast, especially an RTEC breakfast,is associated with improved nutrient adequacy and does not meaningfully affect prevalence above the UL. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Fulgoni V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC | Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Bailey R.L.,Office of Dietary Supplements | Dwyer J.,Tufts University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Limited data are available on the source of usual nutrient intakes in the United States. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from all sources (naturally occurring, fortified and enriched, and dietary supplements) and to compare usual intakes to the Dietary Reference Intake for U.S. residents aged $2 y according to NHANES 2003-2006 (n = 16,110). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 19 micronutrients by source. Only a small percentage of the population had total usual intakes (from dietary intakes and supplements) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for the following: vitamin B-6 (8%), folate (8%), zinc (8%), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, phosphorus, iron, copper, and selenium (,6% for all). However, more of the population had total usual intakes below the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, and E (34, 25, 70, and 60%, respectively), calcium (38%), and magnesium (45%). Only 3 and 35% had total usual intakes of potassium and vitamin K, respectively, greater than the adequate intake. Enrichment and/or fortification largely contributed to intakes of vitamins A, C, and D, thiamin, iron, and folate. Dietary supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively. Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

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