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Schaafsma A.,FrieslandCampina | Deurenberg P.,Nutrition Consultant | Calame W.,StatistiCal BV | Van Den Heuvel E.G.H.M.,FrieslandCampina | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available. Copyright © The Authors 2013A. Source

Sandjaja S.,Persatuan Ahli Gizi Indonesia PERSAGI | Poh B.K.,National University of Malaysia | Rojroonwasinkul N.,Mahidol University | Le Nyugen B.K.,Hanoi Mental Health Center | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21 % of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19 % were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95 % CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. Copyright © The Authors 2013A. Source

Thurnham D.I.,University of Ulster | Northrop-Clewes C.A.,Nutrition Consultant | Knowles J.,Public Nutrition Solutions Ltd
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Many nutrient biomarkers are altered by inflammation. We calculated adjustment factors for retinol and ferritin by using meta-analyses of studies containing the respective biomarker and 2 acute phase proteins in serum, C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). With the use of CRP and AGP we identified 4 groups in each study: reference (CRP ≤5 mg/L, AGP ≤1 g/L), incubation (CRP >5 mg/L, AGP ≤1 g/L), early convalescence (CRP >5 mg/L, AGP >1 g/L), and late convalescence (CRP ≤5 mg/L, AGP >1 g/L). For each biomarker, ratios of the geometric means of the reference to each inflammation group concentration were used to calculate adjustment factors for retinol (1.13, 1.24, and 1.11) and ferritin (0.77, 0.53, and 0.75) for the incubation, early, and late convalescent groups, respectively. The application of the metaanalysis factors in more recent studies compares well with study-specific factors. The same method was used to calculate adjustment factors for soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and body iron stores (BISs) in Lao children.We found no advantage in adjusting sTfR for inflammation; in fact, adjustment decreased iron deficiency. Neither adjusted (10% <0 mg/kg) nor nonadjusted (12% <0 mg/kg) BISs detected asmuch iron deficiency as did ferritin (18% <12μg/L) and adjusted ferritin (21% <12 μg/L) unless the cutoff for BISs was increased from 0 to <3 mg/kg. However, we could find no evidence that the larger number of children identified as having BISs <3mg/kg had risks of anemia comparable to those identified by using ferritin ≤12 μg/L. In conclusion, both corrected and uncorrected ferritin concentrations ≤12 μg/L are associated with more iron deficiency and anemia than either sTfR >8.3 mg/L or BISs ≤0 mg/kg in Lao children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Corby L.,Nutrition Consultant
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research | Year: 2011

Change is the one constant in a constantly changing world, including the world of dietetic practice. Over a 40-year career, I have witnessed and participated in many such changes. Key lessons from my early career with Manitoba Agriculture and Manitoba Health include an understanding of the power of teamwork, of the importance of communication skills, of the need for shared knowledge and expertise, and of ways to connect nutrition messages with food and eating. Later, my work as director of education in a family medicine residency program taught me the value of building a portfolio of knowledge and skills and of working with families. Similarly, my work with the Organization for Cooperation in Overseas Development led me to appreciate the need for cultural sensitivity in our work. Opportunities with Dietitians of Canada have shown me that future directions must include continued interdisciplinary development of policy and position papers. Other important challenges include determining issues relevant to various areas of dietetic practice, working to achieve Vision 2020 goals, and inspiring and nurturing new leadership among younger Dietitians of Canada members. Source

Kuczmarski M.F.,University of Delaware | Weddle D.O.,Nutrition Consultant | Jones E.M.,University of Delaware
Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly | Year: 2010

Independence and quality of life of postmenopausal women are influenced by functional status. Nutrition and physical activity impact functional changes through changes in body composition. The article presents a narrative review of the literature to identify interventions that improve the functionality of community-dwelling postmenopausal women. The authors used the Evidence Analysis Approach developed by the American Dietetic Association to appraise current research. Strong evidence does exist that interventions that incorporate both physical activity and nutrition can improve physical function of older women. However, research focusing on functional status and quality of life, in addition to nutrition and exercise, is extremely limited. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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