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Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hong T.K.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Trang N.H.H.D.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney | Sibbritt D.W.,University of Newcastle | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2010

Objective. To identify factors associated with overweight/obesity among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Methods. In 2004, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using multi-stage cluster sampling. Weight and height of 2 678 students from 31 junior high schools in Ho Chi Minh City were measured. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a physical activity questionnaire. Parental, household and neighbourhood characteristics were also collected. Factors associated with overweight/obesity in adolescents were modelled using hierarchical, multivariate logistic regression. "Survey commands" in STATA were used to account for the multi-stage cluster sampling design. Results. After adjusting for other study factors, the odds of overweight/obesity was significantly higher for male gender (OR3.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.8), younger age (OR3.4, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.3), schools located in wealthy districts (OR2.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.4), higher family economic status (OR1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.9), higher parental education (OR2.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 2.9), overweight or obese parents (OR3.5, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.0), more time spent watching TV (OR4.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 14.7), frequent consumption of soft drinks (OR3.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.3) and more time studying after class (OR2.9, 95% CI: 1.7, 4.9). The odds of overweight/obesity was lower with the availability of fruit at home (OR0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7), frequent consumption of fruit/vegetables (OR0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.4) and being physically active (OR0.5, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8). Conclusions. Family/parental factors as well as children's lifestyle should be taken into account when planning interventions to prevent adolescent obesity. © 2010 Informa Healthcare.

Hu Y.,Peking University | Zhang Z.,Peking University | Sun L.,Peking University | Zhu D.,Peking University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Benzylparaben (BzP), a type of parabens being used as a preservative agent in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products, may be ingested by humans. In this study, we performed an immature uterotrophic assay using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration to determine the estrogenic effects of BzP and found significant increases in uterine weight with doses of 0.16mg/kg body weight and higher (P<0.05). The in vivo estrogenicity of BzP was supported by in vitro results from the human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in silico molecular docking analysis performed in this study. The in vitro estrogenic activity of BzP can be observed at concentrations of 1.0×10-8 M and higher. Molecular docking analysis showed that BzP fits well into the agonist pocket of hERα. The lowest observed effect dose (LOED) (0.16mg/kg/day) of BzP is much lower than the documented LOEDs of other parabens. Actual risk may exist for people who consume a diet high in BzP or use BzP-laden cosmetics. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of Wistar rats to 17β-estradiol by immature uterotrophic assay, and no obvious uterotrophic response was observed in the rats given doses up to 100μg/kg body weight. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Harris D.E.,University of Southern Maine | Aboueissa A.-M.,University of Southern Maine | Walter K.,Nutrition Center | Bampton M.,University of Southern Maine
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2014

Food insecurity is a health hazard for those who experience it. At the national level, households that are poor, single parent, composed of racial minorities, and located in urban areas are more likely to be food insecure. However, less is known about food insecurity's distribution at the community level. A standard food security questionnaire was used to conduct a telephone survey of food insecurity in Lewiston, Maine. Results were mapped in a geographic information system along with 2010 census data and previously collected data on Lewiston's food stores. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fewer adults and the presence of children in the household, but not measures of urbanization and community poverty, predicted lower household food security. These results demonstrate that food insecurity is more widely disturbed in Lewiston, Maine, than might have been predicted and suggest that services to mitigate the impact of food insecurity should also be widely distributed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Binh P.N.,Nutrition Center
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis | Year: 2011

The Vietnamese develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS) at a lower BMI than other ethnicities. Thus, biomarkers that identify subjects at an increased risk of T2D independently of obesity are being sought. Recent studies show that circulating NO metabolites (NOx) are increased in T2D. We investigated whether plasma NOx levels predict insulin resistance and glucose intolerance before the development of T2D, independently of obesity. The current study was derived from a population-based study in HCMC, Vietnam, which was designed to investigate the prevalence of MS and T2D in a population aged 30-69 years. Four hundred and twenty-two subjects were recruited from the study and were stratified into 4 age- and gender-matched groups according to a glucose tolerance test {normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2D}. Plasma NOx concentrations were significantly increased in T2D but not in IFG or IGT compared with NGT. Multiregression analysis showed that plasma NOx levels were inversely correlated with BMI in T2D whereas no association was found between plasma NOx levels and BMI in non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, there was no correlation between plasma NOx levels and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Plasma NOx levels did not predict glucose intolerance or insulin resistance before the development of T2D and the increase in plasma NOx levels in T2D was not caused by adiposity. Thus, plasma NOx is not a useful marker for the prediction of high-risk subjects for T2D among Vietnamese.

Argiles J.M.,University of Barcelona | Busquets S.,University of Barcelona | Stemmler B.,Nutrition Center | Lopez-Soriano F.J.,University of Barcelona
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial and often irreversible syndrome that affects around 50-80% of cancer patients, depending on the tumour type, and that leads to substantial weight loss, primarily from loss of skeletal muscle and body fat. Since cachexia may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is essential. The occurrence of cachexia in cancer patients is dependent on the patient response to tumour progression, including the activation of the inflammatory response and energetic inefficiency involving the mitochondria. Interestingly, crosstalk between different cell types ultimately seems to result in muscle wasting. Some of the recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cachexia may lead to new therapeutic approaches. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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