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Smerecnik C.,Maastricht University | Grispen J.E.J.,School for Public Health and Primary Care CAPHRI | Grispen J.E.J.,Maastricht University | Quaak M.,School for Public Health and Primary Care CAPHRI | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2012

Objective To examine whether genetic testing for smoking-related diseases benefits smoking cessation. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, PsychArticles, CiNAHL and socINDEX databases, the search engine Google Scholar, and key-author and reference list searches. Study selection Randomised controlled smoking cessation interventions using genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. Data extraction Consistent with the Cochrane guidelines, two reviewers completed the review process (initial n=139) in three phases, title selection (n=56), abstract selection (n=28) and whole paper selection (n=9). From these nine studies, each reviewer extracted information about outcome measures and statistical and methodological quality. Data synthesis Relevant data were abstracted from included papers and were subsequently subjected to meta-analysis. Results Interest in genetic testing was relatively high with 60-80% of smokers reporting to be interested. The authors observed positive short-term effects on risk perception, motivation to quit smoking and smoking cessation, but these effects fade at longer follow-ups. Importantly, the authors did not find any evidence of adverse effect of testing negative on the risk-predisposing gene. Conclusions This systematic review does not provide solid evidence for the proposed beneficial effects of genetic testing for smoking-related diseases on smoking cessation, but does suggest the presence of an immediate motivational effect, such that genetic testing resulted in higher risk perception and more motivation to quit smoking. Source


Bracke K.R.,Ghent University | Dentener M.A.,Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht NUTRIM | Papakonstantinou E.,Maastricht University | Vernooy J.H.J.,Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht NUTRIM | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, destruction of lung parenchyma, and airway wall remodeling. Hyaluronan (HA) is a component of the extracellular matrix, and low-molecular-weight (LMW) HA fragments have proinflammatory capacities. We evaluated the presence of HA in alveolar and airway walls of C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to air or cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (subacute) or 24 weeks (chronic). We measured deposition of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen and fibronectin in airway walls and determined the molecular weight of HA purified from lung tissue. In addition, we studied the expression of HA-modulating genes by RT-PCR. HA staining in alveolar walls was significantly enhanced upon chronic CS exposure, whereas HA levels in the airway walls were already significantly higher upon subacute CS exposure and remained elevated upon chronic CS exposure. This differed from the deposition of collagen and fibronectin, which are only elevated at the chronic time point. In lungs of CS-exposed mice, the molecular weight of HA clearly shifted toward more LMW HA fragments. CS exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of the HA synthase gene Has3 in total lung tissue, whereas the expression of Has1 was decreased. These in vivo studies in an experimental model of COPD show that CS exposure leads to enhanced deposition of (mostly LMW) HA in alveolar and bronchial walls by altering the expression of HA-modulating enzymes. This may contribute to airway wall remodeling and pulmonary inflammation in COPD. Source


Phillips C.M.,University College Dublin | Goumidi L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bertrais S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Field M.R.,Hitachi Dublin Laboratory | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2010

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-nutrient interactions may affect MetS risk. This study determined the relationship between ACC2 polymorphisms (rs2075263, rs2268387, rs2284685, rs2284689, rs2300453, rs3742023, rs3742026, rs4766587, and rs6606697) and MetS risk, and whether dietary fatty acids modulate this in the LIPGENE-SU. VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). Minor A allele carriers of rs4766587 had increased MetS risk (OR 1.29 [CI 1.08, 1.58], P = 0.0064) compared with the GG homozygotes, which may in part be explained by their increased body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). MetS risk was modulated by dietary fat intake (P = 0.04 for gene-nutrient interaction), where risk conferred by the A allele was exacerbated among individuals with a high-fat intake (>35% energy) (OR 1.62 [CI 1.05, 2.50], P = 0.027), particularly a high intake (>5.5% energy) of n-6 polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) (OR 1.82 [CI 1.14, 2.94], P = 0.01; P = 0.05 for gene-nutrient interaction). Saturated and monounsaturated fat intake did not modulate MetS risk. Importantly, we replicated some of these findings in an independent cohort.jlr In conclusion, the ACC2 rs4766587 polymorphism influences MetS risk, which was modulated by dietary fat, suggesting novel gene-nutrient interactions. Source


Phillips C.M.,University College Dublin | Phillips C.M.,University College Cork | Tierney A.C.,University College Dublin | Perez-Martinez P.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 12 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective: Obesity is a key factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We investigated whether obesity classification by BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) influences cardiometabolic profile and dietary responsiveness in 486 MetS subjects (LIPGENE dietary intervention study). Design and Methods: Anthropometric measures, markers of inflammation and glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, adhesion molecules, and hemostatic factors were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of four dietary interventions (high saturated fat (SFA), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA), and two low fat high complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, one supplemented with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs)). Results: About 39 and 87% of subjects classified as normal and overweight by BMI were obese according to their BF%. Individuals classified as obese by BMI (≥30 kg/m2) and BF% (≥25% (men) and ≥35% (women)) (OO, n = 284) had larger waist and hip measurements, higher BMI and were heavier (P < 0.001) than those classified as nonobese by BMI but obese by BF% (NOO, n = 92). OO individuals displayed a more proinflammatory (higher C reactive protein (CRP) and leptin), prothrombotic (higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)), proatherogenic (higher leptin/adiponectin ratio) and more insulin resistant (higher HOMA-IR) metabolic profile relative to the NOO group (P < 0.001). Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were lower post-intervention in NOO individuals compared with OO subjects (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In conclusion, assessing BF% and BMI as part of a metabotype may help to identify individuals at greater cardiometabolic risk than BMI alone. Source


Touwslager R.N.H.,Maastricht University | Houben A.J.H.M.,Maastricht University | Gielen M.,Maastricht University | Gielen M.,Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht NUTRIM | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Objective: The fetal response to an adverse intrauterine environment-reflected in low birth weight-is thought to cause an increased risk for adult hypertension. A possible mechanism by which fetal adaptive responses contribute to hypertension is an adverse effect on endothelial function. Identifying individuals with endothelial dysfunction as early as possible may assist in understanding the inverse association between birth weight and hypertension. The present study aimed to identify determinants of endothelial vasodilatation in the first week of life. Methods: One hundred and four term newborns were studied in the first week after birth with regard to maximum vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) in the vasculature of the forearm skin, by use of a laser-Doppler device and iontophoresis. Bivariable and multivariable linear regression with various familial, gestational and neonatal potential covariates were used for the analysis. Results: In the bivariable analysis, maximum perfusion after administration of acetylcholine was positively associated with birth weight, length, head circumference and maternal education level, but negatively associated with maternal hypertension during pregnancy. In the multivariable analysis, head circumference [b = 11.9 perfusion units/z-score, P = 0.02] and hypertension during pregnancy (b =-25.3 perfusion units from nonhypertensive to hypertensive, P = 0.02) remained significantly associated. Maximum perfusion after administration of nitroprusside was not related to any of the anthropometric measures; it was, however, related to gestational age (b =-11.1 perfusion units/week, P = 0.009). Conclusion: This study showed that body size, head circumference in particular, is positively associated with endothelial vasodilatation in newborns, whereas hypertension during pregnancy is inversely associated with endothelial vasodilatation. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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