Nutrition and Research Center

Brookville, OH, United States

Nutrition and Research Center

Brookville, OH, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Hill T.M.,Nutrition and Research Center | Bateman H.G.,Nutrition and Research Center | Aldrich J.M.,Nutrition and Research Center | Schlotterbeck R.L.,Nutrition and Research Center
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

There are concerns with feeding young dairy calves amounts of milk solids approaching 0.9. kg of dry matter (DM) or more because of slumps in average daily gain (ADG) at weaning and low starter intakes. Additionally, programs feeding more than 0.6. kg of DM have not been thoroughly tested for success at different weaning ages. Four milk replacer (MR) programs were compared in trial 1. Program A was 0.44. kg of DM of a 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat MR powder fed daily for 42 d. Program B was 0.66. kg of DM of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder fed daily for 42 d. Program C was 0.66. kg of DM of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder daily fed for 28 d. Program D was up to 1.09. kg of DM of a 29% CP, 21% fat MR daily fed for 49 d. Digestibility estimates were made and blood was sampled for serum constituents on d 53 to 56, and performance was measured for 84 d. Three programs feeding a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder were compared in trial 2 over 56 d. Calves on program A were fed 0.66. kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 28 d. Calves on program B were fed 0.66. kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 42 d. Calves on program C were fed up to 1.09. kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 42 d. Digestibility estimates were made and blood was sampled for serum constituents d 21 to 24, d 36 to 39, and d 53 to 56. In trial 1, calves fed program A had the least overall ADG. Calves fed program D had the greatest ADG from 0 to 56 d, the least ADG from d 56 to 84, the least digestibility estimates, and the least concentrations of serum amylase. At 84 d, there were no differences in body weights of calves fed programs B, C, and D. In trial 2, calves fed program A had the greatest starter intake and greatest concentrations of serum amylase. Calves fed program C had the least estimates of digestibility from d 53 to 56 and the least serum concentrations of amylase. Calves fed up to 1.09 kg/d of 27 to 29% MR powders and weaned at 42 or 49 d had lower starter intakes, concentrations of serum amylase, and digestion of starter postweaning compared with calves fed conventional 21% CP, 21% fat MR powders fed at 0.44 kg/d. Calves fed 0.66 kg/d of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder and weaned at 28 or 42 d of age had no reductions in intake or digestion compared with calves fed conventional MR and gained as much total body weight from 0 to 84 d as calves stepped up to 1.09. kg of MR. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Hill T.M.,Nutrition and Research Center | Quigley J.D.,Nutrition and Research Center | Bateman H.G.,Nutrition and Research Center | Suarez-Mena F.X.,Nutrition and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Calves fed >0.7 kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3 d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD = 0.66 kg daily for 39 d, and then 0.33 kg daily for 3 d, n = 15 calves; HIMOD = 0.88 kg daily for 5 d, then 1.1 kg daily for 23 d, then 0.66 kg daily for 18 d, and then 0.33 kg daily for 3 d, n = 16 calves; HI = 0.88 kg daily for 5 d, then 1.1 kg daily for 37 d, and then 0.56 kg daily for 7 d, n = 15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56 d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112 d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16 wk. Measurements in the first and second 56 d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7 kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8 wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56 d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7 kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7 cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of all nutrients except starch were greater at 16 versus 11 wk of age. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were less for HI versus MOD at 11 wk of age explaining much of the why postweaning body weight gain advantages were lost postweaning in calves fed the HI program. Feeding more than 0.66 kg of dry matter intake from a MR during the preweaning phase did not increase total body weight or hip width gain from 0 to 4 mo of age. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association


Hill T.M.,Nutrition and Research Center | Quigley J.D.,Nutrition and Research Center | Suarez-Mena F.X.,Nutrition and Research Center | Bateman H.G.,Nutrition and Research Center | Schlotterbeck R.L.,Nutrition and Research Center
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3 d old (43 ± 1.5 kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66 kg of dry matter (DM) for 49 d. The AGG rate was fed for 4 d at 0.66 kg of DM, 4 d at 0.96 kg of DM, then 34 d at 1.31 kg of DM, followed by 0.66 kg of DM for the last 7 d. Calves were completely weaned at 49 d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56 d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112 d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6 wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16 wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16 wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112 d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved digestibility of organic matter, DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (over 50% improvement for neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber), which resulted in 10.7 kg (13%) more BW gain and 1.4 cm (16%) more hip width change over 112 d. This was a greater improvement in growth than the difference in AGG and MOD programs over 112 d. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


Chapman C.E.,University of New Hampshire | Erickson P.S.,University of New Hampshire | Quigley J.D.,Nutrition and Research Center | Hill T.M.,Nutrition and Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less-aggressive programs; however, postweaning growth may be reduced. Limited research suggests that less than optimal digestion of the postweaned diet due to large amounts of MR with reduced dry feed intake preweaning may contribute to growth impairment postweaning. Current research was conducted to compare growth and postweaning digestion in 3-d-old male Holstein calves fed various MR programs. The MR programs were a conventional [CON; 0.44 kg of dry matter (DM) 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat powder fed for 42 d], moderate (MOD; 0.66 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 42 d), and aggressive program (AGG; up to 0.87 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 49 d). All calves were fed a 20% CP textured starter and water ad libitum for 56 d. The trial used 96 calves (initially 41 ± 1.9 kg of body weight) received 5 wk apart in 2 groups of 48 calves. During d 51 to 56, fecal samples were collected from 5 calves per treatment randomly selected from calves in the first group. Selected nutrients and acid-insoluble ash (used as an internal flow marker) were analyzed in the starter and feces to estimate digestibility. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with starting time of each group of calves as a block. Repeated measure analysis was performed on overall (0 to 56 d) data. Means were separated with a protected least significant difference test. Pen was the experimental unit. Calves fed CON had the least average daily gain [CON = 0.35, MOD = 0.51, and AGG = 0.55 kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM) = 0.018], feed efficiency (CON = 0.35, MOD = 0.49, and AGG = 0.48 gain/feed, SEM = 0.016), and change in hip width (CON = 3.3, MOD = 4.1, and AGG = 4.1 cm, SEM = 0.20) compared with calves fed other programs. Calves fed AGG had the greatest change in BCS and least starter intake compared with calves fed the other programs. Digestibility of organic matter was 79, 78, and 68% and neutral detergent fiber was 54, 51, and 26% for calves fed programs CON, MOD, and AGG, respectively, and were least for calves fed AGG. These results indicate that postweaning digestion is lower than optimal and contributes to lower postweaning growth in calves fed aggressive compared with conventional or moderate MR programs. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | Nutrition and Research Center and University of New Hampshire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less-aggressive programs; however, postweaning growth may be reduced. Limited research suggests that less than optimal digestion of the postweaned diet due to large amounts of MR with reduced dry feed intake preweaning may contribute to growth impairment postweaning. Current research was conducted to compare growth and postweaning digestion in 3-d-old male Holstein calves fed various MR programs. The MR programs were a conventional [CON; 0.44 kg of dry matter (DM) 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat powder fed for 42d], moderate (MOD; 0.66 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 42d), and aggressive program (AGG; up to 0.87 kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 49d). All calves were fed a 20% CP textured starter and water ad libitum for 56d. The trial used 96 calves (initially 41 1.9 kg of body weight) received 5 wk apart in 2 groups of 48 calves. During d 51 to 56, fecal samples were collected from 5 calves per treatment randomly selected from calves in the first group. Selected nutrients and acid-insoluble ash (used as an internal flow marker) were analyzed in the starter and feces to estimate digestibility. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with starting time of each group of calves as a block. Repeated measure analysis was performed on overall (0 to 56d) data. Means were separated with a protected least significant difference test. Pen was the experimental unit. Calves fed CON had the least average daily gain [CON=0.35, MOD=0.51, and AGG=0.55 kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM)=0.018], feed efficiency (CON=0.35, MOD=0.49, and AGG=0.48 gain/feed, SEM=0.016), and change in hip width (CON=3.3, MOD=4.1, and AGG=4.1cm, SEM=0.20) compared with calves fed other programs. Calves fed AGG had the greatest change in BCS and least starter intake compared with calves fed the other programs. Digestibility of organic matter was 79, 78, and 68% and neutral detergent fiber was 54, 51, and 26% for calves fed programs CON, MOD, and AGG, respectively, and were least for calves fed AGG. These results indicate that postweaning digestion is lower than optimal and contributes to lower postweaning growth in calves fed aggressive compared with conventional or moderate MR programs.


PubMed | Nutrition and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (431.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved digestibility of organic matter, DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (over 50% improvement for neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber), which resulted in 10.7kg (13%) more body weight gain and 1.4cm (16%) more hip width change over 112d. This was a greater improvement in growth than the difference in AGG and MOD programs over 112d.


PubMed | Nutrition and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2010

There are concerns with feeding young dairy calves amounts of milk solids approaching 0.9kg of dry matter (DM) or more because of slumps in average daily gain (ADG) at weaning and low starter intakes. Additionally, programs feeding more than 0.6kg of DM have not been thoroughly tested for success at different weaning ages. Four milk replacer (MR) programs were compared in trial 1. Program A was 0.44kg of DM of a 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat MR powder fed daily for 42 d. Program B was 0.66kg of DM of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder fed daily for 42 d. Program C was 0.66kg of DM of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder daily fed for 28 d. Program D was up to 1.09kg of DM of a 29% CP, 21% fat MR daily fed for 49 d. Digestibility estimates were made and blood was sampled for serum constituents on d 53 to 56, and performance was measured for 84 d. Three programs feeding a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder were compared in trial 2 over 56 d. Calves on program A were fed 0.66kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 28 d. Calves on program B were fed 0.66kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 42 d. Calves on program C were fed up to 1.09kg of DM powder daily and weaned at 42 d. Digestibility estimates were made and blood was sampled for serum constituents d 21 to 24, d 36 to 39, and d 53 to 56. In trial 1, calves fed program A had the least overall ADG. Calves fed program D had the greatest ADG from 0 to 56 d, the least ADG from d 56 to 84, the least digestibility estimates, and the least concentrations of serum amylase. At 84 d, there were no differences in body weights of calves fed programs B, C, and D. In trial 2, calves fed program A had the greatest starter intake and greatest concentrations of serum amylase. Calves fed program C had the least estimates of digestibility from d 53 to 56 and the least serum concentrations of amylase. Calves fed up to 1.09 kg/d of 27 to 29% MR powders and weaned at 42 or 49 d had lower starter intakes, concentrations of serum amylase, and digestion of starter postweaning compared with calves fed conventional 21% CP, 21% fat MR powders fed at 0.44 kg/d. Calves fed 0.66 kg/d of a 27% CP, 17% fat MR powder and weaned at 28 or 42 d of age had no reductions in intake or digestion compared with calves fed conventional MR and gained as much total body weight from 0 to 84 d as calves stepped up to 1.09kg of MR.


PubMed | Nutrition and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Calves fed >0.7kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD=0.66kg daily for 39d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=15 calves; HIMOD=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 23d, then 0.66kg daily for 18d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=16 calves; HI=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 37d, and then 0.56kg daily for 7d, n=15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16wk. Measurements in the first and second 56d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of all nutrients except starch were greater at 16 versus 11wk of age. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were less for HI versus MOD at 11wk of age explaining much of the why postweaning body weight gain advantages were lost postweaning in calves fed the HI program. Feeding more than 0.66kg of dry matter intake from a MR during the preweaning phase did not increase total body weight or hip width gain from 0 to 4mo of age.

Loading Nutrition and Research Center collaborators
Loading Nutrition and Research Center collaborators