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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

Richard J.-L.,University of Nimes | Lavigne J.-P.,University of Nimes | Got I.,Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition | Hartemann A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Aim: This study was an analysis of how diabetic patients with infected foot wounds are managed in hospital by departments specializing in diabetic foot pathology, including an evaluation of the outcome 1 year after discharge. Methods: This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients hospitalized for diabetic foot infection at 38 hospital centres in France and followed-up for 1 year after discharge. Results: Altogether, 291 patients were included (73% male; 85% type 2 diabetes; mean age: 64.3 ± 11.7 years). Most of the wounds were located on the toes and forefoot, and infection was most often graded as moderate; nevertheless, in about 50% of patients, osteomyelitis was suspected. Also, 87% of patients had peripheral neuropathy and 50-62% had peripheral artery disease. Gram-positive cocci, and Staphylococcus aureus in particular, were by far the most frequently isolated microorganisms. During hospitalization, lower-limb amputation was performed in 35% of patients; in 52%, the wound healed or had a favourable outcome. A year after discharge, 150 non-amputated patients were examined: at this time, 19% had to undergo amputation, whereas 79% had healed their wounds with no relapse. Risk factors for amputation were location (toes), severity of the wound and presence of osteomyelitis. Peripheral artery disease was associated with a poor prognosis, yet was very often neglected. Conclusion: In spite of being managed at specialized centres that were, in general, following the agreed-upon published guidelines, the prognosis for diabetic foot infection remains poor, with a high rate (48%) of lower-limb amputation. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Herin F.,University Paul Sabatier | Boutet-Robinet E.,University Paul Sabatier | Levant A.,Limoges University Hospital Center | Dulaurent S.,Limoges University Hospital Center | And 5 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2011

Background: Fipronil represents a chemical class of insecticides acting at the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor in pets. Fipronil has been associated with a significant increase in the incidence of thyroid gland tumors concomitant with prolonged exposure to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in rats. An association between human TSH concentration and thyroid cancer has been also reported. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic occupational fipronil exposure may be associated with abnormal thyroid function tests. Methods: In 2008, 159 workers of a factory manufacturing fipronil-containing veterinary drugs were assessed. Serum concentrations of TSH, total thyroxine, free thyroxine, fipronil, and fipronil sulfone were measured. Results: A positive and significant correlation was observed between serum fipronil or fipronil sulfone levels and duration of fipronil exposure. Serum fipronil sulfone concentration was negatively correlated with TSH concentration in fipronil-exposed workers, but with no significant increase in thyroid function test abnormalities. Conclusion: This study did not show that chronic fipronil exposure was associated with an increase of thyroid function test abnormalities. But, despite the fact that fipronil exposure in rats has been associated with increased serum TSH, fipronil sulfone concentrations were negatively correlated with serum TSH concentrations in fipronil-exposed workers, raising the possibility that fipronil has a central inhibitory effect on TSH secretion in humans. Close occupational medical surveillance, therefore, appears to be required in factory workers manufacturing fipronil-containing veterinary drugs. Larger epidemiological studies as well as investigations on possible thyroid-disrupting mechanisms of fipronil are also required. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Kiiskinen U.,Eli Lilly and Company | Matthaei S.,Quakenbruck Diabetes Center | Reaney M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Mathieu C.,UZ Gasthuisberg | And 7 more authors.
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin) and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both), but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0.001) and increased in the insulin cohort (P < 0.001) by 24 months. Across all countries, total per patient health care costs for the 24 months post baseline were €3997.9 in the exenatide bid cohort and €3265.5 in the insulin cohort (€1791.9 versus €2465.5 due to costs other than those of injectable therapy). When baseline direct cost and patients' and disease characteristics were controlled for, mean direct costs differed by country (P < 0.0001), irrespective of treatment initiated, and the mean cost difference between treatments varied by country (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Much of the higher mean cost of exenatide bid, compared with insulin, therapy was compensated for by lower mean costs of other health service utilization. Costs associated with exenatide bid or insulin initiation varied across countries, highlighting the need to avoid generalization of resource use and cost implications of a particular therapy when estimated in specific country settings. © 2013 Kiiskinen etal, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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