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Molin M.,Nutrition and Management | Molin M.,Oslo University College | Berstad P.,Akershus University Hospital | Benth J.S.,Nutrition and Management | And 9 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2013

Intake of trans fatty acids from hydrogenated fish oils has been related to increased risk of coronary heart diseases. The possible effect on colorectal carcinogenesis is unclear. Materials and Methods: Multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mice were fed one of four experimental diets: either raw fish oil (FO), low (LHFO)-, high (HHFO)- or fully-hydrogenated fish oil (FFHO), from 0 to 9 weeks of age. The number and size of intestinal tumors were recorded. Results: There was no difference between the intervention groups in the numbers of developed intestinal tumors. The tumor size was statistically significantly lower in HHFO vs. the FO-group in male Min/+ mice. The HHFO and FHFO groups had lower weight gain than did the FO group (p=0.008 and p=0.04, respectively), but gender differences, due to effect of dietary intervention on weight gain, were found in Min/+ mice. Conclusion: When compared with raw fish oil, different degrees of hydrogenation of the fish oil had no effect on intestinal carcinogenesis in Min/+ mice. © 2013 Anticancer Research. Source

Eide H.D.,University of Oslo | Halvorsen K.,Nutrition and Management | Halvorsen K.,Oslo University College | Almendingen K.,Nutrition and Management
Journal of Clinical Nursing | Year: 2015

Aims and objectives: To identify what nurses experience as barriers to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalized elderly. Background: Undernutrition occurs frequently among the hospitalised elderly and can result in a variety of negative consequences if not treated. Nevertheless, undernutrition is often unrecognised and undertreated. Nurses have a great responsibility for nutritional care, as this is part of the patient's basic needs. Exploring nurses' experiences of preventing and treating undernourishment among older patients in hospitals is therefore highly relevant. Design: A focus group study was employed based on a hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach. Methods: Four focus group interviews with totally 16 nurses working in one large university hospital in Norway were conducted in spring 2012. The nurses were recruited from seven somatic wards, all with a high proportion of older (≥70 years) inpatients. The data were analysed in the three interpretative contexts: self-understanding, a critical common-sense understanding and a theoretical understanding. Results: We identified five themes that reflect barriers the nurses experience in relation to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished elderly: loneliness in nutritional care, a need for competence in nutritional care, low flexibility in food service practices, system failure in nutritional care and nutritional care is being ignored. Conclusions: The results imply that nutritional care at the university hospital has its limits within the hospital structure and organisation, but also regarding the nurses' competence. Moreover, the barriers revealed that the undernourished elderly are not identified and treated properly as stipulated in the recommendations in the national guidelines on the prevention and treatment of undernutrition. Relevance to clinical practice: The barriers revealed in this study are valuable when considering improvements to nutritional care practices on hospital wards to enable undernourished older inpatients to be identified and treated properly. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Wesseltoft-Rao N.,Nutrition and Management | Wesseltoft-Rao N.,Oslo University College | Wesseltoft-Rao N.,University of Oslo | Holven K.B.,Oslo University College | And 11 more authors.
e-SPEN Journal | Year: 2012

Background & aims: Low-grade inflammation is associated with fat mass in overweight. Whether this association exists in lean persons is unknown.Aims were to investigate associations between anthropometric measures of fat distribution and fat mass (% and kg) assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Furthermore we wanted to investigate the relationship between fat mass and markers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipids in healthy subjects in different BMI categories. Methods: We compared 47 healthy overweight adults (BMI 26-40 kg/m2) and 40 lean (BMI 17-25 kg/m2) matched for age and sex. Waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and triceps skinfold were used to evaluate fat distribution. BIA was used to estimate fat mass (% and kg). Markers of insulin resistance, lipids, inflammation and adipokines were measured. Results: Hip circumference was associated (P < 0.01) with BIA-assessed fat mass (%) in both groups (lean: regression coefficient B = 0.4; overweight: .B = 0.5). An increase in hip circumference in all tertiles was associated with higher plasma levels of leptin, CRP and C-peptide in both groups. Conclusions: Fat mass may play a role in low-grade inflammation also in subjects within the normal range of BMI. Hip circumference may be a surrogate measure for fat mass in subjects in different BMI categories, and may be useful for identification of people with risk of developing overweight-related chronic diseases. © 2012 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source

Kolehmainen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Ulven S.M.,Nutrition and Management | Ulven S.M.,Oslo University College | Paananen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 31 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. Objective: The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Design: Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration <10 mg/L at the beginning and the end of the intervention, and baseline body mass index (in kg/m2) <38. SAT biopsy specimens were obtained before and after the intervention and subjected to global transcriptome analysis with Gene 1.1 ST Arrays (Affymetrix). Results: Altogether, 128 genes were differentially expressed in SAT between the ND and CD (nominal P < 0.01; false discovery rate, 25%). These genes were overrepresented in pathways related to immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97 ), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. Conclusion: A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition Source

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