Nutrition and Health science Program

Atlanta, GA, United States

Nutrition and Health science Program

Atlanta, GA, United States
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Larson L.M.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Namaste S.M.,Strengthening Partnerships | Williams A.M.,Emory University | Engle-Stone R.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2017

Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects.Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC (n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA (n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as <0.7 μmol/L) was examined in PSC.Results: The relation between estimated VAD and CRP and AGP deciles followed a linear pattern in PSC. In women, the correlations between RBP and CRP and AGP were too weak to justify adjustments for inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11-18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP.Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for inflammation when estimating VAD with the use of RBP.

Staimez L.R.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Weber M.B.,Emory University | Ranjani H.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Ali M.K.,Nutrition and Health science Program | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-To examine β-cell function across a spectrum of glycemia among Asian Indians, a population experiencing type 2 diabetes development at young ages despite low BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-One-thousand two-hundred sixty-four individuals without known diabetes in the Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program in Chennai, India, had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test,with glucose and insulinmeasured at 0, 30, and 120 min. Type 2 diabetes, isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT), combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were defined by American Diabetes Association guidelines. Measures included insulin resistance and sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], modified Matsuda Index, 1/fasting insulin) and β-cell function (oral disposition index = [Δinsulin0-30/Δglucose0-30] × [1/fasting insulin]). RESULTS-Mean age was 44.2 years (SD, 9.3) and BMI 27.4 kg/m 2 (SD, 3.8); 341 individuals had NGT, 672 had iIFG, IGT, or IFG plus IGT, and 251 had diabetes. Patterns of insulin resistance or sensitivity were similar across glycemic categories. With mild dysglycemia, the absolute differences in age- and sex-adjusted oral disposition index (NGT vs. iIFG, 38%; NGT vs. iIGT, 32%) were greater than the differences in HOMA-IR (NGT vs. iIFG, 25%; NGT vs. iIGT, 23%; each P < 0.0001). Compared with NGT and adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, and family history, the odds of mild dysglycemia were more significant per SD of oral disposition index (iIFG: odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.23-0.55; iIGT: OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24-0.56) than per SD of HOMA-IR (iIFG: OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33; iIGT: OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.11-2.11). CONCLUSIONS-Asian Indians with mild dysglycemia have reduced β-cell function, regardless of age, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or family history. Strategies in diabetes prevention should minimize loss of β-cell function. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Sylvetsky A.C.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Sylvetsky A.C.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Welsh J.A.,Emory University | Brown R.J.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Objective: Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in the United States. Design: We used NHANES data collected in five 2-y cycles from 1999-2000 to 2007-2008. Consumption of foods and beverages with LCSs was estimated by using one 24-h dietary recall. Estimates of the proportion of the population consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs (prevalence of consumption) were weighted to obtain nationally representative results. Trends in prevalence of LCS consumption and mean intake of beverages sweetened with LCSs were tested by using chi-square tests for trend and F tests. Results: In 2007-2008, the percentage of children and adults consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs increased. The prevalence of consuming beverages with LCSs increased from 6.1% to 12.5% among children (P-trend < 0.0001) and from 18.7% to 24.1% among adults (P < 0.001). Increases in the prevalence of consumption of calorie-containing beverages with LCSs were observed among all weight, age, socioeconomic, and race-ethnicity subgroups in both children and adults. However, little change in consumption of no-calorie beverages with LCSs or LCS-containing foods was found. Conclusions: The consumption of LCS-containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Further research is needed to understand the health effects of this trend. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Bui V.Q.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Stein A.D.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Stein A.D.,Emory University | DiGirolamo A.M.,Health Unit | And 10 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

Inflammation affects trace nutrient concentrations, but research on copper and particularly in children is limited. We assessed associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and zinc, iron, copper, and other biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, and albumin), in 634 healthy 6- to 11-year-old Guatemalan schoolchildren. CRP was measured by a standardized, high-sensitive method. For significant associations with CRP, we stratified nutrient concentrations across categories of CRP and compared concentrations above and below several CRP cutoff points (0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/L), and then adjusted values using correction factors (ratios of geometric means of the nutrients in the low and high groups). Prevalence of serum zinc (<65 μg/dL0, ferritin (<15 μg/L), and copper (<90 μg/dL) deficiency were 21%, 2.1%, and 23.8%, respectively. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) CRP was 0.56 (0.26 and 1.54) mg/L. CRP concentration was positively associated with ferritin and copper concentrations (r00.23 and 0.29, respectively; P<0.0001) but not with zinc and other biomarkers (P>0.05). Regardless of CRP cutoffs, high (> cutoff) vs. low (≤ cutoff) CRP levels had higher ferritin and copper concentrations and lower prevalence of copper deficiency of <90 μg/dL (P<0.05). Adjustment for inflammation had the greatest influence on recalculated prevalence for the CRP 0.5 mg/L cutoff. The low ferritin prevalence hardly changed (from 2.1% to 2.5%) while the low copper prevalence changed appreciably (from 23.8% to 31.2%). In conclusion, CRP was positively associated with ferritin and copper but not with zinc concentrations. Adjustment for inflammation had little effect on low ferritin prevalence, low to begin with, and a large impact on low copper prevalence. High-sensitive CRP methods and the use of very low CRP cutoffs may be more accurate than traditional CRP methods in the adjustment of serum copper concentrations for inflammation in healthy school children. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Wendt A.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Gibbs C.M.,Emory University | Peters S.,Emory University | Hogue C.J.,Emory University
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Short inter-pregnancy intervals (IPIs) have been associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes in the literature. However, many studies in this area have been lacking in quality and appropriate control for confounders known to be associated with both short IPIs and poor outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to assess this relationship using more rigorous criteria, based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. We found too few higher-quality studies of the impact of IPIs (measured as the time between the birth of a previous child and conception of the next child) on maternal health to reach conclusions about maternal nutrition, morbidity or mortality. However, the evidence for infant effects justified meta-analyses. We found significant impacts of short IPIs for extreme preterm birth [<6 m adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40, 1.78], 6-11 m aOR: 1.23 [1.03, 1.46]], moderate preterm birth (<6 m aOR: 1.41 [1.20, 1.65], 6-11 m aOR: 1.09 [1.01, 1.18]), low birthweight (<6 m aOR: 1.44 [1.30, 1.61], 6-11 m aOR: 1.12 [1.08, 1.17]), stillbirth (aOR: 1.35 [1.07, 1.71] and early neonatal death (aOR: 1.29 [1.02, 1.64]) outcomes largely in high- and moderate-income countries. It is likely these effects would be greater in settings with poorer maternal health and nutrition. Future research in these settings is recommended. This is particularly important in developing countries, where often the pattern is to start childbearing at a young age, have all desired children quickly and then control fertility through permanent contraception, thereby contracting women's fertile years and potentially increasing their exposure to the ill effects of very short IPIs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ahearn T.U.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Ahearn T.U.,Emory University | McCullough M.L.,Nutrition and Health science Program | McCullough M.L.,Epidemiology Research Program | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

In cancer cell lines and rodent models, calcium and vitamin D favorably modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in colonic epithelia. These effects may be modulated by local expression of the calcium receptor (CaR), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the P450 cytochromes, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1; however, they have yet to be investigated in humans. To address this gap, we conducted a randomized, doubleblinded, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial. Patients with at least one pathology-confirmed colorectal adenoma were treated with 2 g/d elemental calcium and/or 800 IU/d vitamin D3 versus placebo over 6 months (n = 92; 23 per group). CaR, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 expression and distribution in biopsies of normal appearing rectal mucosa were detected by standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis. In the calcium-supplemented group, CaR expression increased 27% (P = 0.03) and CYP24A1 expression decreased 21% (P =0.79). In the vitamin D3-supplemented group, CaR expression increased 39% (P = 0.01) and CYP27B1 expression increased 159% (P = 0.06). In patients supplemented with both calcium and vitamin D 3, VDR expression increased 19% (P = 0.13) and CaR expression increased 24% (P = 0.05). These results provide mechanistic support for further investigation of calcium and vitamin D3 as chemopreventive agents against colorectal neoplasms, and CaR, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 as modifiable, preneoplastic risk biomarkers for colorectal neoplasms. © 2010 American Association for Cancer Research.

Pongcharoen T.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Pongcharoen T.,Mahidol University | Ramakrishnan U.,Nutrition and Health science Program | Ramakrishnan U.,Emory University | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the relative influence of size at birth, infant growth, and late postnatal growth on intellectual functioning at 9 years of age. Design: A follow-up, cross-sectional study. Setting: Three districts in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. Participants: A total of 560 children, or 92% of former participants of a trial of iron and/or zinc supplementation during infancy. Main Exposures: Prenatal (size at birth), early infancy (birth to 4 months), late infancy (4 months to 1 year), and late postnatal (1 to 9 years) growth. Multiplestage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Main Outcome Measures: Intellectual functioning was measured at 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (Pearson). Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. Results: Significant relationships were found between growth and IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, third edition, Thai version), but only up to 1 year of age; overall, growth was not related to the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length (birth, early infancy, and late infancy); for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months (but not head circumference growth thereafter) was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome. Conclusion: Physical growth in early infancy (and, to a lesser extent, physical growth in late infancy and at birth) is associated with IQ at 9 years of age. Early infancy may be a critical window for human development. © 2012 American Medical Association.

PubMed | Nutrition and Health science Program, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Research Center for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases and Emory University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course.The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis.Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d.We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile.In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored.

PubMed | Nutrition and Health science Program, Emory University and University of Witwatersrand
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo.We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa.We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development.We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01).In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

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