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Box Elder, United States

Tidwell D.K.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Valliant M.W.,University of Mississippi
Nutrition Research | Year: 2011

Calcium and vitamin D are associated with obesity. We hypothesized that African American women with higher calcium and vitamin D intakes would have lower body fat compared with women with lower calcium and vitamin D intakes. This cross-sectional study included 100 premenopausal African American women aged 18 to 40 years with a spectrum of body mass indices (17.3-46.7 kg/m 2). Dietary information was obtained using 24-h recalls. Total body fat was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and reported as percentage body fat (%BF). Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups (n = 50 per group) based on the median quartile of %BF, and differences were determined using independent t tests. Women with at least 37.9%BF had mean calcium (mg per day ± SD) and vitamin D intakes (μg per day ± SD) of 528.6 ± 146.0 and 3.8 ± .9, respectively. In comparison, women with lower %BF (<37.9%) had higher (P < .001) calcium and vitamin D intakes of 911.5 ± 208.3 and 5.0 ± 0.8, respectively. Partial correlation coefficients (controlling for the confounding variables of fat, carbohydrate, and protein intakes) indicated significant (P < 0.001) inverse associations between calcium intake and %BF (r = -666), and vitamin D and %BF (r = -460) in the 100 women. In conclusion, women with lower intakes of calcium and vitamin D were more likely to exhibit excessive adiposity compared with women with higher intakes. © 2011. Source

Schilling M.W.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Battula V.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Jackson V.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Kin S.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Corzo A.,Nutrition and Health Promotion
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

A completely randomized design with 7 replications (n = 7, treatments = 5 with 8 subsamples per treatment) was used to evaluate the effects of feeding various levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) on broiler breast and thigh meat quality. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant with commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. The right half of each breast was evaluated for pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, proximate analysis, and tenderness. The left half of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and TBA reactive substances. Breast meat from broilers that were fed DDGS had a higher (P < 0.05) pH than those from the control diet. In addition, the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments yielded breast meat with higher (P < 0.05) pH values than the 6% DDGS treatment. No differences existed (P > 0.05) among breast meat from the different treatments with respect to cooking loss, instrumental color, and consumer acceptability, but breast meat from the control (0% DDGS) treatment had slightly lower (P < 0.05) shear force than breast meat from the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among proximate composition of breast and thigh meat from the control and DDGS treatments. As DDGS concentration increased, there was a linear increase (P < 0.05) in linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a greater potential for lipid oxidation. The TBA reactive substances values were greater (P < 0.05) for the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments at d 5 when compared with the control and 6% DDGS treatments, which indicates increased oxidation. Overall, data suggest that all treatments yielded highquality breast meat and that thigh meat quality was similar among treatments containing 0 to 12% DDGS, but higher inclusion levels led to thigh meat that was more susceptible to oxidation.© 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Kim T.J.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Corbitt M.P.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Silva J.L.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Wang D.S.,TransWorld University | Spencer B.,Mississippi State University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

Blueberries for the frozen market are washed but this process sometimes is not effective or further contaminates the berries. This study was designed to optimize conditions for hot water treatment (temperature, time, and antimicrobial concentration) to remove biofilm and decrease microbial load on blueberries. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed a well-developed microbial biofilm on blueberries dipped in room temperature water. The biofilm consisted of yeast and bacterial cells attached to the berry surface in the form of microcolonies, which produced exopolymer substances between or upon the cells. Berry exposure to 75 and 90 °C showed little to no microorganisms on the blueberry surface; however, the sensory quality (wax/bloom) of berries at those temperatures was unacceptable. Response surface plots showed that increasing temperature was a significant factor on reduction of aerobic plate counts (APCs) and yeast/mold counts (YMCs) while adding Boxyl ® did not have significant effect on APC. Overlaid contour plots showed that treatments of 65 to 70 °C for 10 to 15 s showed maximum reductions of 1.5 and 2.0 log CFU/g on APCs and YMCs, respectively; with acceptable level of bloom/wax score on fresh blueberries. This study showed that SEM, response surface, and overlaid contour plots proved successful in arriving at optima to reduce microbial counts while maintaining bloom/wax on the surface of the blueberries. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists ®. Source

Chen B.-Y.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Kim T.-J.,Nutrition and Health Promotion | Silva J.L.,Nutrition and Health Promotion
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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