Nutrition and Dietetics Research

Chennai, India

Nutrition and Dietetics Research

Chennai, India
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Krishnaswamy K.,National Institute of Nutrition | Krishnaswamy K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Vaidya R.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Rajgopal G.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Vasudevan S.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2016

Worldwide non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occur due to multiple etiological factors impacting development and economic progress. Developing countries have dual burden of diseases viz., under and over nutrition, which are critical public health challenges. NCDs occur a decade earlier in India. Changing economic scenario, evolving agriculture practices, rapid strides in industrialization, migration, urbanization, globalization and trade liberalization impact the food environment. The resulting dietary transitions lead to replacement of whole/coarse grains/grams with refined foods. Availability, affordability and accessibility of energy- dense foods with excess unhealthy fat, sugar, salt and animal foods, have replaced traditional foods. The intake of healthy horticulture produce such as vegetables, fruits, legumes/pulses, nuts, seeds and fish are inadequate. Broad diversified dietary patterns rather than single foods/nutrients have healthy outcomes. Excess alcohol and tobacco add to the insults. Physical activity has reduced in all segments of the population and domains of physical activity. These steering dynamics change the lifestyles leading to obesity and shifting disease patterns which have overwhelming effects on human capital and the health system. Proactive prevention with comprehensive policies cutting across several risk factors with consensus from all stake holders including the private segment is essential to tide over the crisis. The WHO has committed to reduce under-nutrition, obesity and diet-related NCDs, monitor policy response and catalyse effective actions to achieve specified targets by 2025. The national governments must create the enabling environment to achieve the same. India has initiated action-oriented program for risk reduction with the Health Ministry as the nodal agent for NCD prevention and control. © Printed in India.


Vimaleswaran K.S.,University of Reading | Bodhini D.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Lakshmipriya N.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Ramya K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | And 10 more authors.
Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Background: Lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity have been shown to modify the association between fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and metabolic traits in several populations; however, there are no gene-lifestyle interaction studies, to date, among Asian Indians living in India. In this study, we examined whether dietary factors and physical activity modified the association between two FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs8050136 and rs11076023) (SNPs) and obesity traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: The study included 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the urban component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the linear/logistic regression model. Results: There was a significant interaction between SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate intake (% energy) (Pinteraction = 0.04), where the 'A' allele carriers had 2.46 times increased risk of obesity than those with 'CC' genotype (P = 3.0 × 10-5) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate intake (% energy, 71 %). A significant interaction was also observed between SNP rs11076023 and dietary fibre intake (Pinteraction = 0.0008), where individuals with AA genotype who are in the 3rd tertile of dietary fibre intake had 1.62 cm lower waist circumference than those with 'T' allele carriers (P = 0.02). Furthermore, among those who were physically inactive, the 'A' allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times increased risk of obesity than those with 'CC' genotype (P = 4.0 × 10-5). Conclusions: This is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. Our findings suggest that the association between FTO SNPs and obesity might be influenced by carbohydrate and dietary fibre intake and physical inactivity. Further understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions is warranted to advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies, which could reduce the risk of metabolic diseases in this Asian Indian population. © 2016 Vimaleswaran et al.


PubMed | Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, UK Institute of Food Research and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: | Journal: Nutrition & metabolism | Year: 2016

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0098-6.].


PubMed | Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, UK Institute of Food Research and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: | Journal: Nutrition & metabolism | Year: 2016

Lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity have been shown to modify the association between fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and metabolic traits in several populations; however, there are no gene-lifestyle interaction studies, to date, among Asian Indians living in India. In this study, we examined whether dietary factors and physical activity modified the association between two FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs8050136 and rs11076023) (SNPs) and obesity traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D).The study included 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the urban component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the linear/logistic regression model.There was a significant interaction between SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate intake (% energy) (Pinteraction=0.04), where the A allele carriers had 2.46 times increased risk of obesity than those with CC genotype (P=3.0 10(-5)) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate intake (% energy, 71%). A significant interaction was also observed between SNP rs11076023 and dietary fibre intake (Pinteraction=0.0008), where individuals with AA genotype who are in the 3(rd) tertile of dietary fibre intake had 1.62cm lower waist circumference than those with T allele carriers (P=0.02). Furthermore, among those who were physically inactive, the A allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times increased risk of obesity than those with CC genotype (P=4.0 10(-5)).This is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. Our findings suggest that the association between FTO SNPs and obesity might be influenced by carbohydrate and dietary fibre intake and physical inactivity. Further understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions is warranted to advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies, which could reduce the risk of metabolic diseases in this Asian Indian population.


PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, SASTRA University, Nutrition and Dietetics Research, UK Institute of Food Research and Madras Diabetes Research Foundation
Type: | Journal: Nutrition & metabolism | Year: 2017

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipoprotein lipase gene (The analysis was performed in 788 Type 2 diabetes cases and 1,057 controls randomly chosen from the cross-sectional Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG), serum total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using a Hitachi-912 autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The SNPs (rs1121923, rs328, rs4922115 and rs285) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme digestion and 20% of samples were sequenced to validate the genotypes obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis.After correction for multiple testing and adjusting for potential confounders, SNPs rs328 and rs285 showed association with HDL-C (Our findings suggest that individuals carrying T allele of the SNP rs1121923 have increased HDL-C levels when consuming a high fat diet compared to CC homozygotes. Our finding warrants confirmation in prospective studies and randomized controlled trials.


Shobana S.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Malleshi N.G.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Sudha V.,Nutrition and Dietetics Research | Spiegelman D.,Harvard University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Traditional hand-pounded rice has been replaced today with highly polished white rice in the Asian Indian diets. The study aimed to evaluate the nutritional as well as the sensory differences between the brown (0% polish) and the rice milled to different degrees of polish (2.3, 4.4 and 8.0%). Bapatla and Uma (red pigmented) varieties in both raw and parboiled forms were used. The protein, fat, dietary fibre, γ-oryzanol, polyphenols, vitamin E, total antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging abilities of the brown rice decreased while the available carbohydrates increased with polishing. Sensory attributes of the cooked rice samples (whiteness, grain intactness, fluffiness, firmness, stickiness, chewiness and the cooked rice aroma) were evaluated by trained panelists. Scores for branny taste and chewiness decreased with polishing. On the whole, brown rice of both the varieties was readily accepted by the well-informed sensory trained panelists. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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