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Wicks S.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Taylor C.M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Luo M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Blanchard E.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: The gut microbiome has been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, most studies have focused on fecal or colonic samples. Several species of Artemisia have been reported to ameliorate insulin signaling both invitro and invivo. The aim of this study was to characterize the mucosal and luminal bacterial populations in the terminal ileum with or without supplementation with Artemisia extracts. Methods: Following 4 wk of supplementation with different Artemisia extracts (PMI 5011, Santa or Scopa), diet-induced obese mice were sacrificed and luminal and mucosal samples of terminal ileum were used to evaluate microbial community composition by pyrosequencing of 16 S rDNA hypervariable regions. Results: Significant differences in community structure and membership were observed between luminal and mucosal samples, irrespective of diet group. All Artemisia extracts increased the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in mucosal samples. This effect was not observed in the luminal compartment. There was high interindividual variability in the phylogenetic assessments of the ileal microbiota, limiting the statistical power of this pilot investigation. Conclusions: Marked differences in bacterial communities exist depending on the biogeographic compartment in the terminal ileum. Future studies testing the effects of Artemisia or other botanical supplements require larger sample sizes for adequate statistical power. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Wang Z.Q.,Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory | Zhang X.H.,Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory | Yu Y.,Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory | Tipton R.C.,Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013

Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has no standard treatment. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the effects of extracts of Artemisia santolinaefolia (SANT) and Artemisia scoparia (SCO) on hepatic lipid deposition and cellular signaling in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model. Materials/Methods DIO C57/B6J mice were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. HFD, SANT and SCO. Both extracts were incorporated into HFD at a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FGF21 concentrations were measured. Results At the end of the 4-week intervention, liver tissues were collected for analysis of insulin, AMPK, and FGF21 signaling. SANT and SCO supplementation significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels when compared with the HFD mice (P < 0.001). Fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the SCO than HFD mice, but not in SANT group. Hepatic H&E staining showed fewer lipid droplets in the SCO group than in the other two groups. Cellular signaling data demonstrated that SCO significantly increased liver IRS-2 content, phosphorylation of IRS-1, IR β, Akt1 and Akt2, AMPK α1 and AMPK activity and significantly reduced PTP 1B abundance when compared with the HFD group. SCO also significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR), and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), but not Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) when compared with HFD group. Neither SANT nor SCO significantly altered plasma FGF21 concentrations and liver FGF21 signaling. Conclusion This study suggests that SCO may attenuate liver lipid accumulation in DIO mice. Contributing mechanisms were postulated to include promotion of adiponectin expression, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, and/or enhanced insulin and AMPK signaling independent of FGF21 pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Rutgers University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) | Year: 2014

The gut microbiome has been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, most studies have focused on fecal or colonic samples. Several species of Artemisia have been reported to ameliorate insulin signaling both invitro and invivo. The aim of this study was to characterize the mucosal and luminal bacterial populations in the terminal ileum with or without supplementation with Artemisia extracts.Following 4 wk of supplementation with different Artemisia extracts (PMI 5011, Santa or Scopa), diet-induced obese mice were sacrificed and luminal and mucosal samples of terminal ileum were used to evaluate microbial community composition by pyrosequencing of 16 S rDNA hypervariable regions.Significant differences in community structure and membership were observed between luminal and mucosal samples, irrespective of diet group. All Artemisia extracts increased the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in mucosal samples. This effect was not observed in the luminal compartment. There was high interindividual variability in the phylogenetic assessments of the ileal microbiota, limiting the statistical power of this pilot investigation.Marked differences in bacterial communities exist depending on the biogeographic compartment in the terminal ileum. Future studies testing the effects of Artemisia or other botanical supplements require larger sample sizes for adequate statistical power.


PubMed | Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2013

We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK 1 AMPK 2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling.

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