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Labayen I.,University of the Basque Country | Labayen I.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | Ortega F.B.,Karolinska Institutet | Ortega F.B.,University of Granada | And 22 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

We examined whether physical activity (PA) influences the association between birth weight and serum leptin in adolescents. The study comprised a total of 538 adolescents (315 girls), aged 12.5-17.49 years, born at term (≥37 weeks of gestation). We measured serum leptin levels and time engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) by accelerometry. There was an interaction effect between birth weight and meeting the PA recommendations (60 min/day MVPA) on leptin levels in girls (P = 0.023) but not in boys (P = 0.809). Birth weight was negatively associated with leptin levels in girls not meeting the PA recommendations (i.e. more than 60 min/day of MVPA) (β = -0.096, P = 0.009), whereas no significant association was observed in those meeting the PA recommendations (β = -0.061, P = 0.433). In conclusion, meeting the PA recommendations may attenuate the negative effect of low birth weight on serum leptin levels in European female adolescents. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ruiz J.R.,University of Granada | Ruiz J.R.,Karolinska Institutet | Labayen I.,University of the Basque Country | Labayen I.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | And 15 more authors.
Pediatric Research

Background:To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.Methods:The study comprised 718 adolescents (397 girls). PA was measured by accelerometry and expressed as total PA (counts/min), and time (min/d) engaged in moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA). Time spent sedentary was also objectively measured. We measured serum levels of alanine aspartate aminostrasferase (AST), alanine aminostransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyltrasnferase (GGT), and the AST/ALT ratio was computed.Results:There was an association between MVPA and AST and AST/ALT (age, sex, and center-adjusted β = 0.096, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.016 to 0.118; and β = 0.090, 95% CI: 0.006 to 0.112, respectively). Meeting the PA recommendations (60 min/d of MVPA) was significantly associated with higher AST and AST/ALT, which persisted after further adjusting for sedentary time and waist circumference. Sedentary time was not associated with any of the studied liver enzyme levels.Conclusion:Meeting the current PA recommendations of 60 min/d of MVPA is associated with higher levels of AST and AST/ALT regardless of time spent sedentary as well as total and central body fat in European adolescents. Copyright © 2014 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc. Source

Gonzalo-Skok O.,San Jorge University | Tous-Fajardo J.,Italian National Team FIGC | Arjol-Serrano J.L.,San Jorge University | Suarez-Arrones L.,Pablo De Olavide University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Purpose: To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and changeof-direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Methods: Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets ? 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Results: Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs ) and mean time (RSAm ) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs , suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Conclusions: Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players. © 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

Rey-Lopez J.P.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | Rey-Lopez J.P.,Karolinska Institutet | Vicente-Rodriguez G.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | Vicente-Rodriguez G.,University of Zaragoza | And 14 more authors.
Preventive Medicine

Objective: To describe sedentary behaviors in adolescents and to examine the influence of media availability on TV viewing. Method: The study assessed 3278 adolescents (1537 males and 1741 females, 12.5-17.5. years) involved in the HELENA study (2007). Adolescents reported hours of TV viewing, computer games, console, internet for study and non-study reasons, and study, as well as availability of TVs, computers and consoles. Results: Time spent in sedentary behaviors was higher during weekends (all . p<0.001). Males spent more hours on TV viewing (for ≥ 15. years at weekends), playing computer games and console games while females spent more time studying and surfing for non-study reasons. During weekdays, one third of adolescents exceeded the screen time guidelines (>2. h/day) based solely on TV viewing, whereas around 60% exceeded it at weekends. Having a TV or a console in the bedroom was associated with higher TV viewing (OR. =2.66; 95% CI 2.23-3.18; and OR. =1.92; 95% CI 1.61-2.28, respectively) whereas the presence of computer reduced it (OR. =0.57; 95% CI 0.48-0.68). Conclusion: Adolescents living in Europe are not meeting media recommendations, especially during weekend. The absence of a TV in the adolescents' bedroom might reduce TV viewing. Further studies are needed to confirm or contrast our findings. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

De Miguel-Etayo P.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | De Miguel-Etayo P.,University of Sfax | De Miguel-Etayo P.,University of Zaragoza | Bueno G.,Nutrition and Development Research Group | And 5 more authors.
World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics

Childhood obesity remains an important public health concern and prevention programmes should be the priority in order to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this review is to summarize the most effective types of intervention for treating obesity in children and adolescents. A number of identified strategies used to treat childhood obesity range from lifestyle approaches, pharmacotherapy to surgical intervention. Dietary treatment of obese children and adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem, and preventing cyclical weight regain. Management protocols involve behaviour modifications, family support, and lifestyle changes which are difficult to put into practice and may require multidisciplinary professional teams. The cornerstone of weight loss programmes is to achieve a negative energy balance. There is evidence that dietary interventions are more effective in achieving weight loss when combined with other strategies, such as increasing physical activity levels and/or psychological interventions to promote behavioural changes. Psychological interventions have been employed in an effort to achieve long-term maintenance of behavioural change. Childhood obesity treatments should involve a combination of lifestyle changes including strategies to reduce energy intake, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary activities, facilitate family involvement and change behaviours associated with eating and physical activity. However, drug therapy in obese children must not be used as isolated treatment but as complementary to the traditional treatments of diet, physical activity and lifestyle changes. Besides, surgical procedures have been used to treat severe morbid obesity in children and adolescents when more conservative treatments have proven to be inadequate. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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